Tag: yellow fever vaccine

Myths About the Yellow Fever Vaccine

Endemic yellow fever was eliminated in the United States in 1905, way before the first yellow fever vaccine was developed (1935) and licensed (1953).

How did that work?

Yellow fever is a now vaccine preventable disease that is spread by mosquito bites.

In the United States, it was actually eliminated by controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that spread the yellow fever virus before the vaccine was even developed. These control efforts were also done in Cuba, Panama, and Ecuador, etc., places where yellow fever was common and led to outbreaks in the United States.

Why Haven’t We Eradicated Yellow Fever?

So why is yellow fever still a problem if we can control the the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry the yellow fever virus?

“Mosquitoes breed in tropical rainforests, humid, and semi-humid environments, as well as around bodies of still water in and close to human habitations in urban settings. Increased contact between humans and infected mosquitoes, particularly in urban areas where people have not been vaccinated for yellow fever, can create epidemics.”

Yellow fever: Questions and Answers

It’s because we can control the mosquitoes in urban areas, in and around cities. You can’t really control or eliminate mosquitoes in tropical rain forest regions, which is why it is difficult to eradicate yellow fever, malaria, dengue fever, and other mosquito borne diseases.

But we have a vaccine, don’t we?

“Eradication of yellow fever is not feasible since we are unable to control the virus in the natural animal hosts.”

Yellow fever: Questions and Answers

Unfortunately, we aren’t the only ones who can become infected with yellow fever. Monkeys get infected with the yellow fever virus in rain forests, infect Haemagogus and Sabethes mosquitoes, which bite people in those areas.

“Urban transmission of yellow fever virus occurs when the virus is spread from human to human by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.”

Yellow fever – Brazil

That likely means that yellow fever will never be completely eradicated, unlike small pox.

Yellow Fever Vaccines Myths

But just because yellow fever can’t be eradicated doesn’t mean that it can’t be eliminated.

A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine is safe and provides life-long protection for 99% of people.

“Vaccination is the most powerful known measure for yellow fever prevention: a single dose can provide life-long immunity at a cost of approximately US$1.”

WHO on Eliminating Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) Strategy: Meeting demand for yellow fever vaccines

And as cases of yellow fever increase in some countries, like Brazil, getting more people vaccinated is the only way to stop this deadly disease.

People line up to get a yellow fever vaccine near Kinshasa.
People line up to get a yellow fever vaccine near Kinshasa. Photo by WHO/E. Soteras Jalil

Tragically, anti-vaccination myths and misinformation may be keeping folks from getting vaccinated and protected. Propaganda and anti-vaccine scare videos have them thinking that the yellow fever vaccine is dangerous, part of a conspiracy to depopulate the world, or that it doesn’t work.

It is also important to know that:

  • When traveling to or from some countries, a yellow fever vaccine isn’t enough – you need an International Certificate of Vaccination proving that you were vaccinated.

    You should not skip getting the yellow fever vaccine if you are traveling to an area where yellow fever is endemic, including many parts of areas of Africa and South America.

  • While you are most at risk during the rainy season, especially during outbreaks, it is also possible to get yellow fever during the dry season.
  • Yellow fever is a serious, life-threatening disease.
  • There is no cure for yellow fever.
  • While serious side effects to the yellow fever vaccine have been reported, including anaphylaxis, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND), and yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), they are very rare.
  • The yellow fever vaccine is a live virus vaccine, but shedding is not an issue. Unless at a high risk of exposure, getting the yellow fever vaccine is usually not recommended if you are pregnant or breastfeeding though.
  • It is not usually necessary to get a booster dose of the yellow fever vaccine.
  • Some countries require proof of yellow fever vaccination if you have traveled from a country where there is still a risk of getting yellow fever, so that you don’t import yellow fever into their country.

As yellow fever cases are on the rise in Brazil, with an associated increase in travel associated cases, it is important that everyone understand that vaccines are safe and necessary.

What to Know About Yellow Fever Vaccine Myths

Yellow fever cases are increasing and so are anti-vaccine myths about the yellow fever vaccine, which are keeping some folks from getting vaccinated and protected, even as they are threatened by a potential outbreak.

More on Yellow Fever Vaccines Myths

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

The latest immunization schedule from the CDC and AAP.
The latest immunization schedule from the CDC and AAP.

Today, in the United States, children typically get:

  • 36 doses of 10 vaccines (HepB, DTaP, Hib, Prevnar, IPV, Rota, MMR, Varivax, HepA, Flu) before starting kindergarten that protect them against 14 vaccine-preventable diseases
  • at least three or four more vaccines as a preteen and teen, including a Tdap booster and vaccines to protect against HPV and meningococcal disease, plus they continue to get a yearly flu vaccine

So by age 18, that equals about 57 dosages of 14 different vaccines to protect them against 16 different vaccine-preventable diseases.

While that sounds like a lot, keep in mind that 33% of those immunizations are just from your child’s yearly flu vaccine.

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

Of course, kids in the United States don’t get all available vaccines and aren’t protected against all possible vaccine-preventable diseases. Some vaccines are just given if traveling to a high risk area or in other special situations.

Vaccine-preventable diseases (in the United States, children and teens are routinely protected against the diseases highlighted in bold) include:

  1. adenovirus – a military vaccine
  2. anthrax – vaccine only given if high risk
  3. chicken pox – (Varivax, MMRV)
  4. cholera – vaccine only given if high risk
  5. dengue – vaccine not available in the United States
  6. diphtheria – (DTaP/Tdap)
  7. hepatitis A – (HepA)
  8. hepatitis B – (HepB)
  9. hepatitis E – vaccine not available in the United States
  10. HPV – (Gardasil)
  11. Haemophilus influenzae type b – (Hib)
  12. influenza
  13. measles – (MMR, MMRV)
  14. meningococcal disease – (MCV4 and MenB and MenC)
  15. mumps
  16. pneumococcal disease – (Prevnar13 and PneumoVax23)
  17. pertussis – (DTaP/Tdap)
  18. polio – (bOPV and IPV)
  19. Q-fever – vaccine not available in the United States
  20. rabies – vaccine only given if high risk
  21. rotavirus – (RV1, RV5)
  22. rubella – (MMR, MMRV)
  23. shingles – vaccine only given to seniors
  24. smallpox – eradicated
  25. tetanus – (DTaP/Tdap)
  26. tick-borne encephalitis – vaccine not available in the United States
  27. tuberculosis – (BCG) – vaccine only given if high risk
  28. typhoid fever – vaccine only given if high risk
  29. yellow fever – vaccine only given if high risk

Discontinued vaccines also once protected people against Rocky mountain spotted fever, plague, and typhus.

These vaccine-preventable diseases can be contrasted with infectious diseases for which no vaccines yet exist, like RSV, malaria, norovirus, and HIV, etc., although vaccines are in the pipeline for many of these diseases.

What To Know About Vaccine Preventable Diseases

Available vaccines are helping to eliminate or control a number of vaccine-preventable diseases, like polio, measles, and diphtheria, but a lot of work is left to be done.

More About Vaccine Preventable Diseases

Updated June 16, 2018