Tag: Vaccines

Smallpox Vaccine

Smallpox was officially declared to have been eradicated in December 1979.

Not eliminated. Not eradicated in the United States. It was eradicated.

When was the last case of smallpox?

The last wild case occurred in 1977, in Somalia. Another case occurred in 1978, but that followed a lab accident in Birmingham, England.

We still have stocks of the smallpox virus in at least two secure laboratories and with the risk that smallpox can be used as a biological weapon, we still have a smallpox vaccine.

It isn’t for just anyone though.

The live, attenuated smallpox vaccine made vaccinia virus, ACAM2000, is given as a single dose to those who are at high risk for getting smallpox.

The latest version of the smallpox vaccine was licensed in 2007 and replaced Dryvax, the previous vaccine.

The routine civilian production and distribution of a smallpox vaccine ended in 1983. We had already stopped routinely vaccinating people long before that though. Routine smallpox vaccinated, which was typically given when children were about 12 months old, ended in 1972 in the United States.

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Anthrax Vaccine

Although anthrax is a regular bacterial infection, you can get it from exposure to infected animals, these days people are more concerned about terrorism and the use of weaponized anthrax.

That’s where the anthrax vaccine comes in.

Biothrax, an anthrax vaccine that was first approved in 1970, can be given to those who are at high risk for exposure to anthrax in a series of five doses.

For more information:

Adenovirus Vaccine

Adenovirus is a very common if not well known viral infection.

It can cause cold like symptoms, a sore throat, pink eye, diarrhea, and fever, etc.

An adenovirus vaccine is available, but is only given to enlisted soldiers during basic training. A live vaccine that protects against adenovirus types 4 and 7, the vaccine helps to prevent adenovirus outbreaks among military personnel.

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Live Vaccines

Although people usually think in terms of live vs inactivated vaccines, there are actually many other types of vaccines, including those made up of subunits of a virus or bacterial antigen, toxoid vaccines, conjugate vaccines, DNA vaccines, and recombinant vector vaccines.

Unlike those other vaccine types, live vaccines included a weakened version of a virus or bacteria.

For more information about live vaccines, see: