Getting your kids vaccinated and protected is a good idea.
Vaccines are safe, necessary, and they work.
Why do we need posters and slogans to help educate people about their benefits?
Maybe because as long as there have been vaccines, there have been anti-vaccine slogans scaring parents away from them.
Immunization posters are also a good way to raise awareness of new vaccines and new recommendations for getting vaccinated.
Educating Parents About Vaccines
In the early 1980s, vaccine preventable diseases had come roaring back as folks in England and other countries got scared to vaccinate and protect their kids with the DTP vaccine.
It is reported that “public confidence in the pertussis vaccine collapsed in the early 1970s as a result of widely publicised concern about its safety and campaigns for compensation for children damaged by the vaccine.”
It got so bad that as vaccination rates fell to less than 30% in 1978, there were at least 154 deaths and 17 cases of brain damage in the UK because of pertussis infections, even though the concerns about the pertussis vaccine were widely unfounded.
“While You Make Up Your Mind About Whooping Cough Vaccination, Thousands Of Children Are Holding Their Breath” was an effective poster at this time. It highlighted the fact that you could sometimes wait too long to get your kids vaccinated, as pertussis cases and deaths grew during the outbreaks.
Vaccination rates eventually went up again, as parents made up their mind to vaccinate and protect their kids.
Immunization Posters and Slogans
Other immunization slogans and posters that have been used, including many historical posters, include:
Although you hopefully already know all about all of the vaccines that your kids need, if you see a new immunization poster or slogan, ask your pediatrician for more information.
“By the 1930s… with the improvements in medical practice and the popular acceptance of the state and federal governments’ role in public health, the anti-vaccinationists slowly faded from view, and the movement collapsed.”
Martin Kaufman The American Anti-Vaccinations and Their Arguments
But while anti-vaccinationists might have “slowly faded from view” in the 1930’s, they came back…
And that’s why we often associate the modern anti-vaccine movement with Bob Sears, and Jenny McCarthy, and even with Andy Wakefield. But who inspired them? The modern anti-vaccine movement took root with a discredited bit of research that was published by a doctor in London, but it wasn’t by Wakefield.
Anti-Vaccine Movement Timeline
Again, the anti-vaccine movement predates modern vaccines, but not surprisingly, they have always used the same arguments:
The Rev. Cotton Mather’s house is bombed after he started a smallpox variolation program in Boston in 1721
“Every year, thousands undergo this operation, and the French Ambassador says pleasantly, that they take the small-pox here by way of diversion, as they take the waters in other countries. There is no example of any one that has died in it, and you may believe I am well satisfied of the safety of this experiment, since I intend to try it on my dear little son. I am patriot enough to take the pains to bring this useful invention into fashion in England…”
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu On Small Pox in Turkey (1717)
Dr. Benjamin Mosely, who had a very busy practice inoculating people against smallpox, becomes “the first antivaccinist,” writing against Jenner’s new smallpox vaccine in 1798, warning about “cow mania” and “to guard parents against suffering their children becoming victims to experiment.”
The satirical print, Admirable effet de la Vaccine, appears in France in 1801, depicting horns sprouting from the forehead of a man who was just vaccinated against smallpox.
Also in France, Dr. Jean Vernier and Dr. Joseph Vaume each publish pamphlets critical of Jenner’s vaccine.
The Anti-Vaccination League is created in England in response to the passage of the Vaccination Act of 1853, which made getting the smallpox vaccine compulsory
Dr. C. C. Schieferdecker, writes about the Evils of Vaccination in 1856 in which he set out to “prove vaccination to be nonsense before reason – a miserable illusion, in a scientific point of view, and, in regard to history, the greatest crime that has been committed in this last century.”
the Anti-Cumpulsory Vaccination League is founded after the passage of the Vaccination Act of 1867
Lewis Carroll argues with folks pushing anti-vaccine information about the smallpox vaccine in 1877
William Tebb, a British anti-vaccinationist, visits the United States in 1879 and helps start the Anti-Vaccination Society of America.
Leicester Demonstration March of 1885 – around the time that Leicester had become “a stronghold of anti-vaccination.”
In 1882, Henry Bergh, founder of the ASPCA and a vocal member of the anti-vivisectionist movement, which were often anti-vaccine, writes an article against vaccines. He later helped found the American Anti-Vaccination Society.
Lora Little speaks out about vaccines and writes Crimes of the Cowpox Ring in the late 19th century
George Winterburn, like many homeopaths of the time (1886), becomes an outspoken critic of vaccines, writing the book The Value of Vaccination, in which he tries to proves “how little of scientific research it was adopted, and how much the whim of a few fashionable folk shaped its destiny.”
In 1890, Dr. AN Bell debates Dr. Robert A. Gunn, who had “long held that vaccination would in time be relegated to the long list of medical fallacies, and such works as I mention seem to indicate that it will not be long before that time comes,” in a series of articles over several months, “The Truth About Vaccination,” in their respective medical journals, The Sanitarian and Medical Tribune.
William Tebb publishes the book Vaccination and Leprosy in 1893, in which he pushes the idea that an increase in leprosy is caused by smallpox vaccinations. A review in the New York Times wonders “Can it be possible that for all the years of the present century we have been believing in the potency of vaccination and been stupid enough to work in the wrong direction? Such a conclusion forms the basis of Mr Tebb’s arguments.”
In 1902, Dr. Immanuel Pfeiffer, argues that smallpox wasn’t contagious, was allowed to visit the Gallop’s Island smallpox hospital in Boston. A few weeks later, he was found to be critically ill at his home – with smallpox.
Dr. Reuben Swinburne Clymer, an osteopath, in 1904, writes Vaccination Brought Home to You, which “tells what vaccine is and how it is procured from the calf; tells how some have been killed and others made to suffer untold miseries by being inoculated with pure vaccine [poison]; gives facts and figures showing the results of vaccination… All of which show that vaccination don’t prevent small-pox, but rather tends to increase it. It exposes some of the lies of the wily Medicoes.” Clymer was also an occultist, an Rosicurcian (a self-proclaimed community of mystics who study and practice the metaphysical laws governing the universe, but more commonly called a fake secret society), and wrote about alchemy.
“Here I would like to say a word or two upon one of the most terrible of all acute infections, the one of which we first learned the control through the work of Jenner. A great deal of literature has been distributed casting discredit upon the value of vaccination in the prevention of small-pox. I do not see how anyone who has gone through epidemics as I have, or who is familiar with the history of the subject, and who has any capacity left for clear judgement, can doubt its value…
I would like to issue a Mount-Carmel-like challenge to any ten unvaccinated priests of Baal. I will go into the next severe epidemic with ten selected, vaccinated persons and ten selected unvaccinated persons – I should prefer to choose the latter – three members of Parliament, three anti-vaccination doctors (if they can be found), and four anti-vaccination propagandists. And I will make this promise – neither to jeer nor jibe when they catch the disease, but to look after them as brothers, and for the four or five who are certain to die, I will try to arrange the funerals with all the pomp and ceremony of an anti-vaccination demonstration.”
Sir William Osler, MD Man’s Redemption of Man (1910)
The anti-vaccine American Medical Liberty League is founded in 1918 by D.W. Ensign, the owner of Ensign Remedies (which sold mail-order cures to all diseases), and works against the American Medical Association, employs Lora Little and Charles M. Higgins of the Anti-Vaccination League of America
Mahatma Gandhi writes A Guide to Health in 1921 and states that “vaccination is a violation of the dictates of religion and morality”
Dr. John H Tilden writes the book Toxemia Explained: The True Interpretion of the Cause of Disease in 1926 and explains that “Every so-called disease is built within the mind and body by enervating habits.” In addition to pushing germ theory denialism, he is of course, anti-vaccine, calling vaccines poison.
Louis Siefgried, a Brooklyn chiropractor, writes The Quest Against Vaccination and Cruel Vivisection in 1926 and is soon arrested for refusing to vaccinate his daughter
George Barnard Shaw wrote that “vaccination is nothing short of attempted murder” in a 1944 letter to the Irish Times
“I think it can be said that this demonstrates a conscious over-anxiety to appease what I may call the vaccine-damage lobby, which may have led to decisions being biased against the vaccine.”
Justice Murray Stuart-Smith on Dr David Miller’s DPT study (1986)
Dr. John Wilson of London, in 1973, presents to the British Pediatric Association and later publishes an article, “Neurological complications of pertussis inoculation,” in the Archives of Disease in Childhood describing “36 children, seen in the past 11 years, who are believed to have suffered from neurological complications of pertussis inoculation.” While Wilson actually supported immunizations, like Wakefield, he later took to the media to scare parents because he had “seen too many children in whom there has been a very close association between a severe illness, with fits, unconsciousness, often focal neurological signs, and inoculation.” What followed was a drop in DPT vaccinations in many countries and vaccine lawsuits, even though his study was later found to be seriously flawed, with most having no link to the DPT vaccine.
Rosemary Fox, forms the Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children, for which Wilson becomes an adviser. Fox, who believed that her daughter was “damaged by vaccination,” distributed questionnaires to the parents of suspected vaccine injured children, many who were seeking compensation in lawsuits, and many of which were then used in the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study by Dr Gordon Stewart and Dr David Miller.
Jack Ashley MP begins asking questions in Parliament about adverse events after vaccinations, soon after Wilson’s paper is published in 1974, supported by Rosemary Fox and almost 300 families from her Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children.
Dr. Robert Mendelsohn, one of the first celebrity, anti-vaccine pediatricians, was a frequent guest on Donahue and other talk shows during the 1970s and 80s, prompting the AAP Committee on Infectious Disease to call him out in a “Red Book Update” published in Pediatrics in 1982, stating his “views are counter to scientific evidence and clearly they do not reflect Academy policy or recommendation.”
Dr. David Miller publishes a study in 1981 that showed a link between seizures in kids and receiving the DPT vaccine. A link that could not be confirmed in any other studies and a study that was published before all of the data had been completed. Like Wilson’s study, the Miller study quickly fell apart upon closer examination, including a finding that of seven children reportedly having vaccine damage, “three of the children had been incorrectly labeled as brain damaged when in fact they were normal both before and after vaccination.”
Lea Thompson‘s anti-vaccine documentary DPT: Vaccine Roulette aired in 1982 and is often credited as helping start the modern American anti-vaccine movement, but would she have been able to make her documentary without the groundwork laid out by Wilson and Miller?
Mirroring the work of Rosemary Fox, Barbara Loe Fisher, with Kathi Williams, soon form the group Dissatisfied Parents Together (DPT) shortly after watching Vaccine Roulette. They later changed their name to the NVIC, which was once described as the “single most powerful anti-vaccine organization in America.”
The press in Great Britain, when articles from daily and Sunday papers from 1982 were analyzed, were found to be “irresponsible in their attitude” towards vaccines and often depicted “rare, negative events.”
“…because so many parents refuse, either out of obstinacy or ignorance or fear, to allow their children to be immunised, we still have a hundred thousand cases of measles every year…
It really is almost a crime to allow your child to go unimmunised.”
Roald Dahl Death of Olivia (1986)
Lisa Bonet, of The Cosby Show, appeared on Donahue in 1990 and said that vaccines could “introduce alien microorganisms into our children’s blood and the long-term effects which could be trivial or they could be quite hazardous”
Andrew Wakefield publishes his first study trying to find a virus that was causing inflammatory bowel disease in 1992, “Detection of herpesvirus DNA in the large intestine of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using the nested polymerase chain reaction.” He moves on to the measles virus the next year with his study, “Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn’s disease.”
Heather Whitestone becomes the first deaf Miss America, winning the Miss America pageant in 1994, and promptly gets media coverage for her ‘vaccine injury,’ which was really caused by a Hib infection. Not surprisingly, the true story, that her deafness wasn’t caused by a vaccine injury, didn’t get nearly as much media coverage.
Andrew Wakefield publishes his first Lancet article in 1994, “Perinatal measles infection and subsequent Crohn’s disease.” The next year, he gets another study published in Lancet, “Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?” Foreshadowing what was to happen with his later “autism” study, his research was found to be “flawed because of biases from differential loss to follow-up and case ascertainment in the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts.” The findings of his study also could not be replicated by others and was flagged for “epidemiological weaknesses and lack of biological plausibility.”
Meryl Dorey forms the Australian Vaccination Network in 1994, who’s name is later changed (on order of the NSW Government Fair Trading Agency) to the Australian Vaccination-skeptics Network.
“It would be most unfortunate if the publication of this controversial work led to public anxiety over the safety of measles vaccine.”
KC Calman on Wakefield’s 1995 Measles Vaccination Study
Beginning from at least 1995, and over the next 10 years, 37% of all vaccine safety articles “had a negative take-home message.”
Katie Couric does a segment on the NBC News show Now with Tom Brokaw and Katie Couric about DPT “hot lots.”
David Miller writes a letter to the BMJ about a study he did, “Measles vaccination and neurological events,” and in which he concluded that “these findings provide no evidence of a risk of long-term neurological damage associated with measles vaccine.” Not surprisingly, Wakefield took issue with Miller’s study, but many will be surprised about one of Wakefield’s problem – ” a reaction to vaccination resulting in regressive autism is likely to be a rare event, so the number of cases used for Miller and colleagues’ analysis is woefully inadequate to investigate such a reaction.”
At one of the first anti-vaccine conferences of the modern era, the First International Public Conference on Vaccination, in September 1997, Andrew Wakefield gives a presentation and Lea Thompson gets an award.
Andrew Wakefield publishes another study in the Lancet in 1998, setting off a media frenzy by stating that “Again, this was very contentious and you would not get consensus from all members of the group on this, but that is my feeling, that the, the risk of this particular syndrome developing is related to the combined vaccine, the MMR, rather than the single vaccines.” Although widely discredited, his paper isn’t formally retracted until 2010.
In 1999, ABC’s 20/20 airs a segment about the hepatitis B vaccine, “Who’s Calling the Shots?,” which has been described as “a program that deeply scared the American public.” ABC’s Nightline also does a segment on vaccine injury featuring Barbara Loe Fisher.
Beginning in 2000, Dan Burton begins holding Congressional hearings trying to prove that there is a link between vaccines and autism
Also in 2000, Andrew Wakefield appears on the 60 Minutes segment “The MMR Vaccine”
And that’s the year that Cindy Crawford appeared on Good Morning America with her celebrity pediatrician, Dr. Jay Gordon, after which he said “They edited the segment to make me sound like a vaccination proponent. We also have to understand the impact of a person as well-known as Cindy Crawford delaying vaccines for over six months.”
The CBS Evening News begins their four year run of “extremist views of vaccines and autism,” including going “after vaccine makers and the make-believe link between vaccines and autism, taking up the cause of trial attorneys on the one hand and glossing over the scientific data demonstrating no relationship on the other.” This 2004 segment by Sharyl Attkisson, on “Vaccine Links to Autism?,” featured a ‘landmark study’ by Dr. Mady Hornig about overdosing mice with thimerosal.
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. gets his “error-laced” expose “Deadly Immunity” published in Rolling Stone magazine in 2005 (it is later retracted). He also appears on the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather.
Jenny McCarthy appears on Oprah,Good Morning America, Larry King Live, and 20/20 in 2007 to promote her book about how she cured her non-Indigo autistic son who got the “autism shot”
“When a well-meaning parent like Jenny McCarthy blames vaccines for her child’s autism, placing the fear of God into every parent who has a baby, it’s not only irresponsible – it’s dangerous. Why? It’s simple math: vaccines are less effective when large numbers of parents opt out. And the more who opt out, the less protected ALL our children are.
Celebrity books come and go . . . but the anxiety they create lives on in pediatricians’ offices across the country. A small, but growing number of parents are even lying about their religious beliefs to avoid having their children vaccinated, thanks in part to the media hysteria created by this book.”
Ari Brown, MD on The New McCarthyism in the Wall Street Journal (2007)
Dr. Bob Sears publishes his Vaccine Book in 2007 which leads vaccine hesitant parents across the country to request that their pediatricians follow Sears’ non-evidence based alternative immunization schedule instead of the standard CDC schedule, leaving these kids unprotected from many vaccine preventable diseases
In 2008, Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey lead the Green Our Vaccines rally in Washington, D.C.
The pilot episode of Eli Stone aired on ABC in 2008, a show described as “anti-vaccination idiocy about autism.”
The CBS Evening News with Katie Couric, airs a segment in 2008, “How Independent Are Vaccine Defenders?,” pushing the idea that “strong financial ties” between vaccine manufacturers and the AAP and other groups pushing the idea that “industry ties could impact the advice given to the public about all those vaccines.”
Jenny McCarthy in Time magazine in 2009 and appears again on Larry King Live
Matt Lauer interviews Andrew Wakefield on Dateline in 2009 in the hour-long episode “A Dose of Controversy”
Barbara Loe Fisher discussing “Forced Vaccinations” on Lou Dobbs Tonight in 2009
Bill Maher again warns people about flu shots in 2009 (during the H1N1 pandemic), this time on his own show Real Time with Bill Maher
Bill Gates gives a Ted Talk in 2010, says that “The world today has 6.8 billion people. That’s heading up to about nine billion. Now if we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care & reproductive health services, we could LOWER that by perhaps 10 or 15 percent,” and folks think he has a plan to depopulate the world using vaccines.
“The way forward is clear. Because no credible evidence during the past 13 years supports the hypothesized connection between the MMR vaccine and autism disorders, it is bereft of credible evidence and must be discarded. At the same time, autism is a public health concern that must be addressed by enhancing research funding and directing that funding toward studies of credible hypotheses of causation.
To continue pouring money into futile attempts to prove a connection to the MMR vaccine when multiple high-quality scientific studies across multiple countries and across many years have failed to show any hint of a connection, and in the face of biologic nonplausibility, is dangerous and reckless of lives, public funding, and ultimately public health.”
Gregory A. Poland, MD on Vaccine Nihilism and Postmodern Science (2011)
The Greater Good movie, which has been described as “pure, unadulterated anti-vaccine propaganda,” debuts at the Dallas International Film Festival in 2011
Rep. Michele Bachman in a 2011 interview on Fox News discussing the HPV vaccine, says that “There’s a woman who came up crying to me tonight after the debate. She said her daughter was given that vaccine. She told me her daughter suffered mental retardation as a result of that vaccine. There are very dangerous consequences. It’s not good enough to take, quote, ‘a mulligan’ where you want a do-over, not when you have little children’s lives at risk.”
Katie Couric has a segment about HPV on her show Katie in 2013 in which she “promotes dangerous fear mongering”
Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. who has said both that he is “not anti-vaccine” and that after kids get vaccinated, “their brain is gone. This is a holocaust…,” also claimed, in 2017, that he is to lead Donald Trump’s “vaccine safety commission.”
While the names change and we now have anti-vaccine propaganda on the internet instead of hand printed pamphlets, the key messages they use to scare parents away from vaccinating and protecting their kids are surprisingly the same.
What To Know About the History of the Anti-Vaccine Movement
As you follow the anti-vaccine movement from the very beginning, it is easy to see the common threads that connect all of the players from the Victorian Age to the 21st Century. Germ theory denialism. Alternative medical providers. The media.
Fear, especially fear of vaccine-injury.
And although George Bernard Shaw once wrote that “the antivaccinist is facing very serious persecution without any prospect of personal gain,” you just have to look at all of the eBooks, eCourses, conferences, seminars, supplements, and autism “cures” many of them push and sell to know that isn’t true.
The modern anti-vaccine movement certainly also has a wider forum these days, making them an even more vocal minority. Facebook. Twitter. YouTube. E-books.
But not much else has changed.
One can’t even really say that the names have changed. Folks in the modern anti-vaccine movement continue to bring up the work of long discredited anti-vaccinated propagandists from the past, even going so far as continuing to believe that germs don’t really cause disease, vaccines don’t really work, and that vaccines aren’t really necessary.
But few likely now that we have had rabies vaccines since 1885, a flu vaccine since 1945, or that the last case of wild polio in the United States was in 1979.
“It is hard to fully appreciate how vaccines have revolutionized modern medicine. The long schedule of vaccines may seem like a hassle, and rumors about harmful effects unnerve parents. But, the fact is, vaccines have helped save millions and millions of lives. Just a few generations ago, people lived under the constant threat of deadly infectious diseases, like smallpox, polio, and hepatitis.
Let’s look at the greatest infectious scourges of the past 1,000 years and how vaccines have mitigated or even eradicated the danger.”
Public Health Understanding Vaccines
From historical safety concerns, like the Cutter Incident in 1955 or the withdrawal of the first rotavirus vaccine in 1999, to improvements in vaccine safety and the control, elimination, and eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases, understanding the history of vaccines can help you get educated and understand that vaccines work and that they are safe and necessary.
Early History of Vaccination
In the early history of vaccination we had the the smallpox vaccine and the beginning of the pre-vaccine era – the first vaccines.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu brings variolation to England to prevent smallpox
George Washington mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox
Edward Jenner conducts experiments in 1796 that led to the creation of the first smallpox vaccine a few years later and replaces variolation as a preventative for smallpox
*Dr. Luigi Sacco becomes the Jenner of Italy
James Madison, one of the Founding Fathers, signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
a vaccine for rabies is developed by Louis Pasteur in 1885
vaccines for cholera and typhoid were developed in 1896 and a plague vaccine in 1887
the first diphtheria vaccine is developed in about 1913 through the work of Emil Adolf Behring, William Hallock Park, and others
the first whole-cell pertussis vaccines is developed in 1914, although it will take several decades before they are more widely used
a tetanus vaccine is developed in 1927
12 children die when a multi-use bottle of diphtheria vaccine that didn’t contain a preservative became contaminated with bacteria in the Queensland Disaster in 1928
Max Theiler develops the first yellow fever vaccine in 1936
the AAP formally approves the use of a pertussis vaccine created by Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering in 1943
the first flu vaccine is licensed for use in the US in 1945
End of the Pre-Vaccine Era
In the mid-20th century, we started to get vaccines to control diseases that many of us have never seen, like polio, measles, and rubella.
the individual diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines become combined in a single DTP vaccine in 1948
the Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is introduced in 1955
President Dwight D Eisenhower signed the Polio Vaccination Assistance Act in 1955, which gave $30 million in federal grants to states to cover the costs of planning and conducting polio vaccination programs, including purchasing polio vaccine
about 200 children develop polio in 1955 from contaminated polio vaccines in what becomes known as the Cutter Incident
the live, oral Sabin polio vaccine (OPV) replaces the Salk polio vaccine in 1962
President John F Kennedy signed the Vaccination Assistance Act in 1962 (Section 317 of the Public Health Service Act), which started as a three year program to help get kids vaccinated against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but it has been continuously reauthorized ever since
the first live measles vaccine was licensed in 1963 but was replaced with a further attenuated measles virus that caused fewer side effects in 1968
President Lyndon B Johnson established a legacy of US leadership in global immunization by funding the CDC Smallpox Eradication program in 1965
the MMR vaccine becomes available in 1971, combined the vaccines for measles, mumps (licensed in 1967), and rubella (1969), and was routinely given when toddlers were about 15 months old
routine vaccination with smallpox vaccines end in the US in 1972
The Vaccination Era
The end of the 20th century brought more vaccines and protection against even more now vaccine preventable diseases.
Pneumovax, the first pneumococcal vaccine that protects kids and adults from certain types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria is approved in 1971 and is given to high-risk kids
President Jimmy Carter’s National Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1977 reached its goal of immunizing 90% of children
the Thirty-Third World Health Assembly declares that smallpox is eradicated in 1979
Menomune, the first meningococcal vaccine is licensed in 1981 and is recommended for high-risk kids until it is later replaced by Menactra
a plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine is licensed in 1981
a Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide vaccine is licensed in 1985, but unfortunately does not provide good protection in kids younger than 18 to 24 months, who are most at risk for Haemophilus influenzae Type b disease
a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB) is approved in 1986 but is only recommended to be used in those at high risk for infection
another hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, is approved in 1989
the first Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (PRP-D) is approved in 1988 to provide protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in all kids at least 18 months old, but in 1990, they are replaced with two improved Hib conjugate vaccines (PRP-HbOC and PRP-OMP) that can be given to infants as young as two months old
a booster dose of MMR is first recommended in 1989, but only for kids who live in counties that have at least 5 cases of measles. The routine 2 dose MMR schedule wasn’t put into use for all kids until 1994.
the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) is established in 1990
the hepatitis B and Hib vaccines are recommended for all infants in 1991
after year’s of neglect under President Reagan, President George HW Bush’s immunization action plan in 1991 once again raised immunization rates following three years of measles outbreaks
the DTaP vaccine, which is supposed to have fewer side effects than DTP is licensed, and by 1997 replaces DTP for all required doses, although DTP is never actually shown to have caused seizures or brain damage, as was once claimed in Vaccine Roulette
President Bill Clinton’s Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1993 includes signing the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Act, providing free vaccines to many children
the WHO declares that polio has been eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994
a vaccine to protect kids against chicken pox (Varivax) is licensed in 1995
VAQTA, the first hepatitis A vaccine is approved by the FDA in 1996 for kids who are at least two years old, but is mainly given to kids at high risk to get hepatitis A
the Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is once again recommended for kids and replaces the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in 1996 because of a small risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), beginning with a sequential IPV-OPV vaccine schedule and then going to an all IPV schedule in 2000
RotaShield, the first rotavirus vaccine is licensed in 1998 but is soon withdrawn from the market in 1999 after it is associated with an increased risk of intussusception, a form of bowel obstruction
LYMErix, a Lyme disease vaccine, is licensed in 1998
Dr. Andrew Wakefield publishes a report in the journal Lancet and attempts to link the MMR vaccine to autism
thimerosal is removed from the vast majority of vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule in 1999 and 2000
endemic measles is declared eliminated in the United States in 2000
Prevnar, a newer pneumococcal vaccine is licensed in 2000 and is added to the immunization schedule the next year
LYMErix goes off the market because of insufficient sales in 2002
Flumist, a live, intranasal flu vaccine, is approved in 2004
endemic rubella is declared eliminated in the United States in 2004
a flu shot for all healthy children between 6 and 23 months became a formal recommendation for the 2004-05 flu season.
beginning in the 2004-05 flu season, a flu shot is recommended for women who will be pregnant during flu season, in any trimester, which is different than previous recommendations for a flu vaccine if a women was going to be beyond the first trimester of pregnancy during flu season. Unfortunately, even though they are in a high-risk category, only about only 13% of pregnant women received a flu vaccine in 2003.
Havrix, another hepatitis A vaccine, is approved in 2005 and the age indication for both hepatitis A vaccines is lowered to 12 months.
Menactra, a vaccine to protect against certain types of meningococcal disease is licensed in 2005 and is added to the immunization schedule in 2006, being recommended for all at 11 to 12 years of age or when they enter high school
the Tdap vaccine (Boostrix or Adacel) is recommended for teens and adults to protect them from pertussis in 2006 and replaces the previous Td vaccine that only worked against tetanus and diphtheria
RotaTeq, another rotavirus vaccine, is licensed in 2006, and is added to the immunization schedule in 2007
the hepatitis A vaccine is added to the routine childhood immunization schedule in 2006
a 2nd booster dose of the chicken pox vaccine is added to the immunization schedule in 2007 to help prevent breakthrough infections
The Post Vaccination Era
Why call it the post-vaccination era?
It has been some time since a vaccine for a new disease has been added to the routine vaccination schedule, but we are also starting to see more and more outbreaks of old diseases, especially pertussis, mumps, and measles.
another rotavirus vaccine, RotaRix, is approved in 2008
another HPV vaccine, Cervarix, is approved in 2009
another meningococcal vaccine, Menveo, is approved in 2010
a newer version of Prevnar, which can provide coverage against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacteria, is approved and replaces the older version (Prevnar 7) in 2010
Fluzone Intradermal and Fluzone High-Dose are two new flu vaccine options that became available in 2011
a combination vaccine that protects against both Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y was approved by the FDA in 2013. MenHibrix is recommended for infants at high risk for meningococcal disease.
Quadrivalent flu vaccines, which protect against four strains of flu, become available for the 2013-14 flu season
Trumenba, the first vaccine to protect against serogroup B Meningococcal disease is approved by the FDA (October 2014). Previously, Bexsero, a MenB vaccine that is approved in some other countries, was given to some college students during outbreaks under the FDA’s expanded access program for investigational products. Both are now recommended by the ACIP for those at increased risk for meningococcal serogroup B infections.
Gardasil 9 is approved by the FDA (December 2014) to provide protection against five additional types of HPV.
Cervarix is discontinued in the US in 2016 because of poor sales
Vaxchora is approved to in 2016 for adults traveling to cholera-affected areas
You would think that getting kids vaccinated and protected against vaccine-preventable diseases would be a non-partisan issue, but it unfortunately isn’t always the case.
Even before Donald Trump brought up false claims that vaccines cause autism, we have seen what can happen when funding for vaccines dropped. Federal support for vaccines dropped while Reagan was in office and we quickly saw outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including many deaths.
Fortunately, most American Presidents have strongly supported vaccines.
There is no longer any reason why American children should suffer from polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, or tetanus. … I am asking the American people to join in a nationwide vaccination program to stamp out these four diseases.
JFK in 1962
George Washington – had smallpox and later mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox
John Adams – was innoculated against smallpox (before Jenner‘s vaccine was available), as were his wife and children
James Madison – signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
James K Polk – died of cholera, a now vaccine-preventable disease, three months after his term ended
Zachary Taylor – died of cholera while still in office
Abraham Lincoln – developed smallpox while he was in office
Franklin D Roosevelt – had polio and founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which was later renamed the March of Dimes, and helped fund Jonas Salk‘s research on the first polio vaccine
Harry S Truman – had diphtheria as a child, which may have left him with vision problems, and was vaccinated against smallpox
Dwight D Eisenhower – signed the Polio Vaccination Assistance Act in 1955, which gave $30 million in federal grants to states to cover the costs of planning and conducting polio vaccination programs, including purchasing polio vaccine
John F Kennedy – signed the Vaccination Assistance Act in 1962 (Section 317 of the Public Health Service Act), which started as a three year program to help get kids vaccinated against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but it has been continuously reauthorized ever since
Lyndon B Johnson – established a legacy of US leadership in global immunization by funding the CDC Smallpox Eradication program in 1965 (smallpox wasn’t eradicated until 1980)
Richard Nixon – observed that scientists who helped develop the polio vaccine with Jonas Salk “deserve far greater respect and support by the people whom they serve than they now receive.”
Gerald Ford – instituted a swine flu vaccination program for an outbreak that never appeared
Jimmy Carter – his National Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1977 reached its goal of immunizing 90% of children
Ronald Reagan – signed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986, which created VAERS and the NVICP, while federal support for vaccine programs reached a low point in his years in office, as rates of children living in poverty and without health insurance increased
George HW Bush – his immunization action plan in 1991 once again raised immunization rates following three years of measles outbreaks
Bill Clinton – his Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1993 which included signing the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Act, provided free vaccines to many children
George W Bush – announced a major smallpox vaccination program in 2002, but very few healthcare workers actually volunteered to get vaccinated
Barack Obama – declared the 2009 H1N1 swine flu outbreak a national emergency, Obamacare requires health insurance plans to pay for vaccines without co-pays, made the Ebola outbreak a national security priority, and helped keep funding for Zika vaccine research going
What can we expect our next President to do about vaccines and vaccination rates?
For More Information on US Presidents and Vaccines:
What did the Founding Fathers think about vaccines?
While some folks like to claim that the Founding Fathers would have been against vaccines, most experts think that claim is nonsense.
What we know is that the seven key Founding Fathers, which include:
John Adams – was innoculated against smallpox (before Jenner‘s vaccine was available), as were his wife and children
Benjamin Franklin – was vaccinated and regretted not vaccinating his own son, who died of smallpox
Alexander Hamilton – supported George Washington’s plan to inoculate the Continental Army against smallpox
John Jay – having a brother and sister that were both blinded by natural smallpox infections, you would expect that he would be in favor of vaccinations and he did indeed inoculate his own children Maria, Nancy and Sally Jay against smallpox
James Madison – signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
George Washington – had smallpox and later mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox
Without speculating on what they would have thought of today’s immunization schedules and anti-vaccine movements, it is safe to say that they supported the use of the vaccines that were available to them at the time to protect themselves and their families.
For More Information on the Founding Fathers and Vaccines:
Technically, the first official immunization schedule that was approved by the ACIP, AAP, and AAFP – a harmonized immunization schedule, just like we have today – was published in 1995.
Past Immunization Schedules
Of course, there were immunization schedules before that, including these immunization schedules that were published by the AAP in 1983, 1989, and 1994:
The Hib vaccine was added in 1985.
Next came the hepatitis B vaccine and expanded age ranges for the Hib vaccine.
What’s still missing?
Vaccines and protection against rotavirus, hepatitis A, chicken pox, flu, pneumococcal bacteria, meningococcal bacteria, and HPV.
Even Older Immunization Schedules
While the anti-vaccine movement often claims that kids now get too many vaccines (the too many too soon argument), not understanding that they get far fewer antigens than they once did, with far more protection, most of them will be surprised that some children got even more immunizations that the 1980s schedules they long for.
So in the 1940s, some children received:
3 doses of the pertussis vaccine
2 doses of the smallpox vaccine
3 doses of the typhoid vaccine
3 doses of a DT vaccine
a DPT booster
a tetanus booster
a typhoid booster
2 pertussis boosters
Some children also received a flu vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.
With reference to the influence viral vaccine we have endeavored to give it those children who have repeated, frequent, severe upper respiratory tract infection.
Dr. Francis A Garbade – Galveston, Texas 1948
And in 1938, the AAP’s Special Committee on Prophylactic Procedures Against Communicable Diseases published a pamphlet, Routine measures for the prophylaxis of communicable diseases, which became the first Red Book.
Among its recommendations were vaccines to protect against seven infections, including:
It also mentions vaccines for erysipelas, scarlet fever, staphylococcal infections and chicken pox.
The bottom line is that many kids got a lot more vaccines in the old days than many parents realize or remember.
For More Information on Historical Immunization Schedules:
References on Historical Immunization Schedules
Offit, Paul A. Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System? Pediatrics. Vol. 109 No. 1 January 1, 2002 pp. 124-129
Pickering, Larry K. The Red Book Through the Ages. Pediatrics. November 2013, VOLUME 132 / ISSUE 5
Sako, Wallace. Practical and Immunolgic Aspects of Pediatric Immunizations. Pediatrics. 1948;2;722.
Valneva – Japanese encephalitis vaccine (IXIARO), Dukoral cholera vaccine
Of course, there used to be many more.
During the past fifty years, companies devoted solely or primarily to manufacturing vaccines (such as Lederle and Praxis) have been acquired by other pharmaceutical companies; the number of companies making vaccines has decreased from twenty-six in 1967 to seventeen in 1980 and to five in 2004 (GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi-Aventis, Merck, Wyeth, and Chiron).
Paul Offit, MD
And then there were four…
21st Century Vaccine Industry Changes
Unlike changes in the 1970s, the latest changes in the vaccine industry and among vaccine manufacturers don’t have a lot to do with companies being forced out of business because of lawsuits.
Mergers and consolidation seem to be fueling the changes.
For example, Novartis, recently considered one of the top five pharmaceutical corporations that make vaccines, sold off its vaccine business to CSL Limited and GSK.
CSL Limited then formed Seqirus to produce their flu vaccines.
In other changes:
Pfizer acquired Wyeth in 2008
Chiron Corp became Novartis Vaccines in 2006
Aventis Pasteur and Sanofi merged to become Sanofi Pasteur in 2004
SmithKline Beecham and Glaxo Wellcome merged to become GlaxoSmithKline in 2000
But you don’t really get how big these mergers are until you understand that:
Pasteur Merieux and Aventis merged to become Aventis Pasteur in 1999
Wyeth acquired Lederle Laboratories/Praxis in 1994
Lederle Laboratories and Praxis merged in 1989
Connaught Laboratories was purchased by the French Merieux Institute, forming Pasteur Merieux in 1989
Still other vaccine manufacturers simply stopped making vaccines.
Older Vaccine Manufacturers
What ever happened to these vaccine manufacturers?
Bionetics Research Inc.
Cutter Laboratories – made anthrax vaccine and the Salk polio vaccine that was involved in the Cutter incident. Was bought by Bayer in 1974, but they no longer make vaccines.
Dow Chemical (Pitman-Moore) – got out of the vaccine business in 1977-78 and stopped making 12 vaccines
Eli Lilly – got out of the vaccine business in 1976 and stopped making 14 vaccines
Evans Medical Ltd.
Mich (Michigan Department of Public Health) – once made 8 vaccines
Miles Inc. – exited the vaccine market in 1970 and stopped making 11 vaccines
North American Vaccine, Inc. – was purchased by Baxter International Inc. in 2000, a company that sold off its remaining vaccine business in 2000, including vaccines for meningitis C and tick borne encephalitis. North American Vaccine, Inc. once sold a DTaP vaccine – Certiva.
Organon Teknika Corporation
Parke-Davis – purchased by Warner-Lampert in 1970, but had sold off their flu vaccine division as King Pharmaceuticals, stopping production of 16 other vaccines. King Pharmaceuticals later changed its name to Parkdale Pharmaceuticals and stopped making vaccines in 2002.
Richardson-Merrill – got out of the vaccine business in 1976-78 and stopped making 14 vaccines
Solvay Pharmaceuticals – purchased by Abbott Laboratories in 2010, but Solvay’s flu vaccine business was sold off and their Influvac vaccine is no longer used in the United States
Squibb & Sons – now known as Bristol-Myers Squibb, since their 1989 merger, Squibb used to make vaccines, including Maurice Hilleman‘s first Japanese B encephalitis vaccine
Texas Department of Health Resources – exited the vaccine market in 1979 and stopped making 7 vaccines
University of Illinois – once made the BCG vaccine
Unlike other companies that merged or had their vaccine business sold off, these companies and their vaccines are gone. And some, like Bionetics Research Inc. and Organon Teknika Corporation were acquired by the same companies (ABL). They just don’t make vaccines anymore.
Book – Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine’s Greatest Lifesaver
References on Vaccine Manufacturers:The Children’s Vaccine Initiative: Achieving the Vision. Historical Record of Vaccine Product License Holders in the United States
Pereira,Nuno Sousa. Vaccine Supply: Effects of Regulation and Competition. International Journal of the Economics of Business 18(2):239-271.October 2010