Tag: History of Vaccines

Typhus vs Typhoid Fever

Typhus and typhoid have both been in the news recently.

  • Texas officials issue alert about typhus threat
  • Typhoid: Two children die‚ 60 ill after drinking from contaminated stream in South Africa

Should you start panicking?

Of course not.

Even before they knew which bacteria actually caused typhus and typhoid fevers, they knew they were different diseases.
Even before they knew which bacteria actually caused typhus and typhoid fevers, they knew they were different diseases.

While neither is usually a threat to most people in developed countries, instead of panicking, get educated and learn how you can prevent these still common infections.

Typhus Fever

Epidemic typhus fever is spread by human body lice (not head lice!) that are infected with the Rickettsia prowazekii bacteria.

Symptoms of typhus fever can include the sudden onset of:

  • fever
  • muscle aches (myalgias)
  • headache
  • chills
  • not feeling well (malaise)
  • cough

Some patients develop a characteristic rash made up of small red spots (macules) that start on the upper trunk. It then spreads to the rest of the body, but spares the face, palms, and soles. The rash can eventually become petechial.

Untreated, the fever may last up to two weeks, followed by a slow recovery of two to three months for all of the other symptoms. Typhus fever can be fatal.

Fortunately, treatment is available – the antibiotic doxycycline.

How do you prevent epidemic typhus fever? You avoid body lice. And avoid flying squirrels, which can be infected with Rickettsia prowazekii bacteria.

Is typhus fever vaccine-preventable? No, although a typhus vaccine was once available, it was discontinued in 1979.

Keep in mind that in addition to epidemic typhus, which is now very rare, typhus can also be spread by fleas (murine typhus) and chiggers (scrub typhus).

Murine or endemic typhus is common in tropical and subtropical climates, where it is spread by rats and fleas. In the United States, it is mainly found in California, Hawaii, and Texas, where it has also been associated with cat fleas found on cats and opossums.

Scrub typhus is associated with chiggers in rural areas of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, China, Japan, India, and northern Australia.

Typhoid Fever

Although typhus and typhoid some very similar, there are some big differences between these two diseases.

What are they?

Unlike typhus, typhoid fever is:

  • caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria
  • spread by ingesting contaminated food and water
  • characteristic by symptoms that include a gradual onset of fever, with stomach aches, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash.
  • still vaccine preventable – in fact, there are two typhoid vaccine, one oral and the other a shot

Fortunately, typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics, although it is sometimes multi-drug resistant and some people become chronic carriers, even with treatment (Typhoid Mary).

While adventurous and fun, eating street vendor food is probably a good way to get typhoid fever.
While adventurous and fun, eating street vendor food is probably a good way to get typhoid fever. Photo by Sam Sherratt (CC BY-SA 2.0)

That it can still be treated is a good thing, because unlike epidemic typhus, typhoid fever is still very much around.

The CDC estimates that there are about 5,700 cases of typhoid fever in the United States each year, mostly in travelers that leave the country.

Worldwide, there are about 21 million cases of typhoid fever and 222,000 typhoid-related deaths each year!

In addition to getting vaccinated, if traveling to the developing world, to avoid typhoid, you should avoid risky food and be sure to “Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it.”

What to Know About Typhus and Typhoid Fever

Typhus and typhoid fevers are two very different diseases that can both be avoided with good hygiene practices.

More on Typhus and Typhoid Fever

Vaccine Timeline and History of Vaccines

Most people are aware of the big historic dates and events related to vaccines.

For example, they might now when Edward Jenner first tested his smallpox vaccine (1798), when the first polio vaccine was licensed by Jonas Salk (1955), or that we just got a Meningococcal B vaccine (2014).

Smallpox was officially declared to have been eradicated in December 1979.
Smallpox was officially declared to have been eradicated worldwide in December 1979.

But few likely now that we have had rabies vaccines since 1885, a flu vaccine since 1945, or that the last case of wild polio in the United States was in 1979.

“It is hard to fully appreciate how vaccines have revolutionized modern medicine. The long schedule of vaccines may seem like a hassle, and rumors about harmful effects unnerve parents. But, the fact is, vaccines have helped save millions and millions of lives. Just a few generations ago, people lived under the constant threat of deadly infectious diseases, like smallpox, polio, and hepatitis.

Let’s look at the greatest infectious scourges of the past 1,000 years and how vaccines have mitigated or even eradicated the danger.”

Public Health Understanding Vaccines

From historical safety concerns, like the Cutter Incident in 1955 or the withdrawal of the first rotavirus vaccine in 1999, to improvements in vaccine safety and the control, elimination, and eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases, understanding the history of vaccines can help you get educated and understand that vaccines work and that they are safe and necessary.

Early History of Vaccination

In the early history of vaccination we had the the smallpox vaccine and the beginning of the pre-vaccine era – the first vaccines.

  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu brings variolation to England to prevent smallpox
  • George Washington mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox
  • Edward Jenner conducts experiments in 1796 that led to the creation of the first smallpox vaccine a few years later and replaces variolation as a preventative for smallpox
  • *Dr. Luigi Sacco becomes the Jenner of Italy
  • James Madison, one of the Founding Fathers, signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
  • a vaccine for rabies is developed by Louis Pasteur in 1885
  • vaccines for cholera and typhoid were developed in 1896 and a plague vaccine in 1887
  • the first diphtheria vaccine is developed in about 1913 through the work of Emil Adolf Behring, William Hallock Park, and others
  • the first whole-cell pertussis vaccines is developed in 1914, although it will take several decades before they are more widely used
  • a tetanus vaccine is developed in 1927
  • 12 children die when a multi-use bottle of diphtheria vaccine that didn’t contain a preservative became contaminated with bacteria in the Queensland Disaster in 1928
  • Max Theiler develops the first yellow fever vaccine in 1936
  • the AAP formally approves the use of a pertussis vaccine created by Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering in 1943
  • the first flu vaccine is licensed for use in the US in 1945

End of the Pre-Vaccine Era

In the mid-20th century, we started to get vaccines to control diseases that many of us have never seen, like polio, measles, and rubella.

  • the individual diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines become combined in a single DTP vaccine in 1948
  • the last smallpox outbreak in the United States kills one person, Lillian Barber, in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas in 1949
  • the Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is introduced in 1955
  • President Dwight D Eisenhower signed the Polio Vaccination Assistance Act in 1955, which gave $30 million in federal grants to states to cover the costs of planning and conducting polio vaccination programs, including purchasing polio vaccine
  • about 200 children develop polio in 1955 from contaminated polio vaccines in what becomes known as the Cutter Incident
  • the live, oral Sabin polio vaccine (OPV) replaces the Salk polio vaccine in 1962
  • President John F Kennedy signed the Vaccination Assistance Act in 1962 (Section 317 of the Public Health Service Act), which started as a three year program to help get kids vaccinated against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but it has been continuously reauthorized ever since
  • the first live measles vaccine was licensed in 1963 but was replaced with a further attenuated measles virus that caused fewer side effects in 1968
  • President Lyndon B Johnson established a legacy of US leadership in global immunization by funding the CDC Smallpox Eradication program in 1965
  • the MMR vaccine becomes available in 1971, combined the vaccines for measles, mumps (licensed in 1967), and rubella (1969), and was routinely given when toddlers were about 15 months old
  • routine vaccination with smallpox vaccines end in the US in 1972

The Vaccination Era

The end of the 20th century brought more vaccines and protection against even more now vaccine preventable diseases.

  • Pneumovax, the first pneumococcal vaccine that protects kids and adults from certain types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria is approved in 1971 and is given to high-risk kids
  • President Jimmy Carter’s  National Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1977 reached its goal of immunizing 90% of children
  • the Thirty-Third World Health Assembly declares that smallpox is eradicated in 1979
  • Menomune, the first meningococcal vaccine is licensed in 1981 and is recommended for high-risk kids until it is later replaced by Menactra
  • a plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine is licensed in 1981
  • Vaccine Roulette, a controversial news segment, airs in 1982 and attempts to associate the DPT vaccine with permanent brain damage, downplays the risks of pertussis disease and helps start much of the modern American anti-vaccine movement
  • a Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide vaccine is licensed in 1985, but unfortunately does not provide good protection in kids younger than 18 to 24 months, who are most at risk for Haemophilus influenzae Type b disease
  • a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB) is approved in 1986 but is only recommended to be used in those at high risk for infection
  • another hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, is approved in 1989
  • the first Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (PRP-D) is approved in 1988 to provide protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in all kids at least 18 months old, but in 1990, they are replaced with two improved Hib conjugate vaccines (PRP-HbOC and PRP-OMP) that can be given to infants as young as two months old
  • a booster dose of MMR is first recommended in 1989, but only for kids who live in counties that have at least 5 cases of measles. The routine 2 dose MMR schedule wasn’t put into use for all kids until 1994.
  • the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) is established in 1990
  • the hepatitis B and Hib vaccines are recommended for all infants in 1991
  • after year’s of neglect under President Reagan, President George HW Bush’s immunization action plan in 1991 once again raised immunization rates following three years of measles outbreaks
  • the DTaP vaccine, which is supposed to have fewer side effects than DTP is licensed, and by 1997 replaces DTP for all required doses, although DTP is never actually shown to have caused seizures or brain damage, as was once claimed in Vaccine Roulette
  • President Bill Clinton’s Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1993 includes signing the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Act, providing free vaccines to many children
  • the WHO declares that polio has been eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994
  • a vaccine to protect kids against chicken pox (Varivax) is licensed in 1995
  • VAQTA, the first hepatitis A vaccine is approved by the FDA in 1996 for kids who are at least two years old, but is mainly given to kids at high risk to get hepatitis A
  • the Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is once again recommended for kids and replaces the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in 1996 because of a small risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), beginning with a sequential IPV-OPV vaccine schedule and then going to an all IPV schedule in 2000
  • RotaShield, the first rotavirus vaccine is licensed in 1998 but is soon withdrawn from the market in 1999 after it is associated with an increased risk of intussusception, a form of bowel obstruction
  • LYMErix, a Lyme disease vaccine, is licensed in 1998
  • Dr. Andrew Wakefield publishes a report in the journal Lancet and attempts to link the MMR vaccine to autism
  • thimerosal is removed from the vast majority of vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule in 1999 and 2000
  • endemic measles is declared eliminated in the United States in 2000
  • Prevnar, a newer pneumococcal vaccine is licensed in 2000 and is added to the immunization schedule the next year
  • LYMErix goes off the market because of insufficient sales in 2002
  • Flumist, a live, intranasal flu vaccine, is approved in 2004
  • endemic rubella is declared eliminated in the United States in 2004
  • a flu shot for all healthy children between 6 and 23 months became a formal recommendation for the 2004-05 flu season.
  • beginning in the 2004-05 flu season, a flu shot is recommended for women who will be pregnant during flu season, in any trimester, which is different than previous recommendations for a flu vaccine if a women was going to be beyond the first trimester of pregnancy during flu season. Unfortunately, even though they are in a high-risk category, only about only 13% of pregnant women received a flu vaccine in 2003.
  • Havrix, another hepatitis A vaccine, is approved in 2005 and the age indication for both hepatitis A vaccines is lowered to 12 months.
  • Menactra, a vaccine to protect against certain types of meningococcal disease is licensed in 2005 and is added to the immunization schedule in 2006, being recommended for all at 11 to 12 years of age or when they enter high school
  • the Tdap vaccine (Boostrix or Adacel) is recommended for teens and adults to protect them from pertussis in 2006 and replaces the previous Td vaccine that only worked against tetanus and diphtheria
  • RotaTeq, another rotavirus vaccine, is licensed in 2006, and is added to the immunization schedule in 2007
  • the hepatitis A vaccine is added to the routine childhood immunization schedule in 2006
  • Gardasil, the first HPV vaccine, is approved in 2006
  • a shingles vaccine, Zostavax, is approved for adults in 2006
  • a 2nd booster dose of the chicken pox vaccine is added to the immunization schedule in 2007 to help prevent breakthrough infections

The Post Vaccination Era

Why call it the post-vaccination era?

It has been some time since a vaccine for a new disease has been added to the routine vaccination schedule, but we are also starting to see more and more outbreaks of old diseases, especially pertussis, mumps, and measles.

  • another rotavirus vaccine, RotaRix, is approved in 2008
  • another HPV vaccine, Cervarix, is approved in 2009
  • another meningococcal vaccine, Menveo, is approved in 2010
  • a newer version of Prevnar, which can provide coverage against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacteria, is approved and replaces the older version (Prevnar 7) in 2010
  • Fluzone Intradermal and Fluzone High-Dose are two new flu vaccine options that became available in 2011
  • a combination vaccine that protects against both Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y was approved by the FDA in 2013. MenHibrix is recommended for infants at high risk for meningococcal disease.
  • Quadrivalent flu vaccines, which protect against four strains of flu, become available for the 2013-14 flu season
  • Trumenba, the first vaccine to protect against serogroup B Meningococcal disease is approved by the FDA (October 2014). Previously, Bexsero, a MenB vaccine that is approved in some other countries, was given to some college students during outbreaks under the FDA’s expanded access program for investigational products. Both are now recommended by the ACIP for those at increased risk for meningococcal serogroup B infections.
  • Gardasil 9 is approved by the FDA (December 2014) to provide protection against five additional types of HPV.
  • Cervarix is discontinued in the US in 2016 because of poor sales
  • Vaxchora is approved to in 2016 for adults traveling to cholera-affected areas

More Information About Vaccine Timelines

Save

Hedda Get Bedda Doll and Other Measles Stories

Hedda Get Bedda originally came with a hospital bed.
The Hedda Get Bedda doll originally came with a hospital bed.

In the early 1960s, the American Character Doll Company produced a series of Whimsie dolls, including:

  • Annie the Astronut
  • Fanny the Flapper
  • Hilda the Hillbilly
  • Lena the Cleaner (baseball)
  • Samson the Strongman
  • Simon the Degree
  • Wheeler the Dealer (casino dealer)
  • Zero the Hero

Hardly politically correct for our times, the stereotyped dolls do provide a look at the history of their time.

One other doll, Hedda Get Bedda, is especially helpful in that sense.

Made in 1961, this Whimsie doll could change her face, letting you know how she was feeling when you turned the knob on her head. She could go from having a sleeping face, to a sick face (perhaps having chicken pox or measles), to a happy face (once you made her better).

Does the fact that she also came with a hospital bed mean anything?

Just like some anti-vaccine folks like to think that the simple fact that they made a doll that had measles or chicken pox could possibly mean that they looked at them as mild diseases, you could just as easily say that including the hospital bed means ‘they’ understand they were life-threatening diseases that could put land you in the hospital.

We are talking about the pre-vaccine era after all, and in 1961, and when the Hedda Get Bedda doll came out, there were about 503,282 cases of measles in the United States and 432 measles deaths.

Like the Brady Bunch measles episode, the Hedda Get Bedda doll is sometimes used to push the myth that vaccine-preventable diseases aren’t that serious, helping folks justify their decisions to intentionally skip or delay vaccines and leaving their kids unprotected.

“…for those trained in pediatrics in the 1970s, Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) was a horror.”

Walter Orenstein, MD

For example, if you believed that measles, chicken pox, or Hib were mild diseases, then you might feel better about not getting your child the MMR, chicken pox, or Hib vaccines.

Sure, many people get measles and do get better without any complications. On their way to getting better though, even they have high, hard to control fever for 5 to 7 days, with coughing and extreme irritability.

But while most get better, we shouldn’t forget that some people don’t survive measles without complications. Natural immunity sometimes comes with a price, from vision problems and permanent hearing loss to brain damage.

And tragically, some people don’t get to survive measles.

Get Educated. Get Vaccinated.

For More Information and Measles Stories

US Presidents and Vaccines

You would think that getting kids vaccinated and protected against vaccine-preventable diseases would be a non-partisan issue, but it unfortunately isn’t always the case.

donald-trump

Even before Donald Trump brought up false claims that vaccines cause autism, we have seen what can happen when funding for vaccines dropped. Federal support for vaccines dropped while Reagan was in office and we quickly saw outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including many deaths.

Fortunately, most American Presidents have strongly supported vaccines.

There is no longer any reason why American children should suffer from polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, or tetanus. … I am asking the American people to join in a nationwide vaccination program to stamp out these four diseases.

JFK in 1962

  • George Washington – had smallpox and later mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox
  • John Adams – was innoculated against smallpox (before Jenner‘s vaccine was available), as were his wife and children
  • Thomas Jefferson – conducted his own smallpox vaccine trials
  • James Madison – signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
  • James K Polk – died of cholera, a now vaccine-preventable disease, three months after his term ended
  • Zachary Taylor – died of cholera while still in office
  • Abraham Lincoln – developed smallpox while he was in office
  • Franklin D Roosevelt – had polio and founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which was later renamed the March of Dimes, and helped fund Jonas Salk‘s research on the first polio vaccine
  • Harry S Truman – had diphtheria as a child, which may have left him with vision problems, and was vaccinated against smallpox
  • Dwight D Eisenhower – signed the Polio Vaccination Assistance Act in 1955, which gave $30 million in federal grants to states to cover the costs of planning and conducting polio vaccination programs, including purchasing polio vaccine
  • John F Kennedy – signed the Vaccination Assistance Act in 1962 (Section 317 of the Public Health Service Act), which started as a three year program to help get kids vaccinated against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but it has been continuously reauthorized ever since
  • Lyndon B Johnson – established a legacy of US leadership in global immunization by funding the CDC Smallpox Eradication program in 1965 (smallpox wasn’t eradicated until 1980)
  • Richard Nixon – observed that scientists who helped develop the polio vaccine with Jonas Salk “deserve far greater respect and support by the people whom they serve than they now receive.”
  • Gerald Ford – instituted a swine flu vaccination program for an outbreak that never appeared
  • Jimmy Carter – his National Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1977 reached its goal of immunizing 90% of children
  • Ronald Reagan – signed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986, which created VAERS and the NVICP, while federal support for vaccine programs reached a low point in his years in office, as rates of children living in poverty and without health insurance increased
  • George HW Bush – his immunization action plan in 1991 once again raised immunization rates following three years of measles outbreaks
  • Bill Clinton – his Childhood Immunization Initiative in 1993 which included signing the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Act, provided free vaccines to many children
  • George W Bush – announced a major smallpox vaccination program in 2002, but very few healthcare workers actually volunteered to get vaccinated
  • Barack Obama – declared the 2009 H1N1 swine flu outbreak a national emergency, Obamacare requires health insurance plans to pay for vaccines without co-pays, made the Ebola outbreak a national security priority, and helped keep funding for Zika vaccine research going

What can we expect our next President to do about vaccines and vaccination rates?

For More Information on US Presidents and Vaccines:

Save

Founding Fathers on Vaccines

The Founding Fathers presenting a draft of the Declaration of Independence.
The Founding Fathers presenting a draft of the Declaration of Independence. By John Trumbull – US Capitol

What did the Founding Fathers think about vaccines?

While some folks like to claim that the Founding Fathers would have been against vaccines, most experts think that claim is nonsense.

What we know is that the seven key Founding Fathers, which include:

  • John Adams – was innoculated against smallpox (before Jenner‘s vaccine was available), as were his wife and children
  • Benjamin Franklin – was vaccinated and regretted not vaccinating his own son, who died of smallpox
  • Alexander Hamilton – supported George Washington’s plan to inoculate the Continental Army against smallpox
  • John Jay – having a brother and sister that were both blinded by natural smallpox infections, you would expect that he would be in favor of vaccinations and he did indeed inoculate his own children Maria, Nancy and Sally Jay against smallpox
  • Thomas Jefferson – conducted his own smallpox vaccine trials
  • James Madison – signed the Vaccine Act of 1813 – An Act to encourage Vaccination.
  • George Washington – had smallpox and later mandated that every soldier in the Continental Army had to be inoculated against smallpox

Without speculating on what they would have thought of today’s immunization schedules and anti-vaccine movements, it is safe to say that they supported the use of the vaccines that were available to them at the time to protect themselves and their families.

For More Information on the Founding Fathers and Vaccines:

Contaminated Vaccines

comvax
Hib and Comvax vaccines were recalled in 2007 over concerns about bacterial contamination.

Tragically, vaccines can sometimes become contaminated with substances that can get kids sick.

In addition to the Cutter Incident, in which live polio virus contaminated the inactivated polio vaccines, problems with contaminated vaccines include:

  • two children in Chiapas, Mexico who died after getting vaccines that were contaminated with bacteria
  • hepatitis-contaminated yellow fever vaccines during WWII
  • tetanus contaminated smallpox vaccine in the 1890s and early 20th century

Other findings of contamination have not led to any problems, such as:

Still, that has not stopped some from scaring many people about the idea of contaminated vaccines – from misinformation about glyphospate in vaccines to conspiracy theories of a polio vaccine cancer cover up and hidden ingredients that contaminate vaccines.

Worries about contamination should certainly not keep you from vaccinating your kids though.

The most recent episode, in Chiapas,  was because of local conditions in a remote village in Mexico. It had nothing to do with how the vaccine was produced.

In 2007, it is reported that “routine testing identified B. cereus in the vaccine manufacturing process equipment, but not in individual vaccine lots.” Although the vaccines were quickly recalled, no one got sick.

Other cases, like when tetanus or hepatitis contaminated some vaccines, while tragic, was long before the latest safeguard from the FDA were put in place.

Vaccines are very safe from contamination.

For More Information on Contaminated Vaccines:

Historical Immunization Schedules

Technically, the first official immunization schedule that was approved by the ACIP, AAP, and AAFP – a harmonized immunization schedule, just like we have today – was published in 1995.

Past Immunization Schedules

Of course, there were immunization schedules before that, including these immunization schedules that were published by the AAP in 1983, 1989, and 1994:

schedule1983s
Eleven doses of four vaccines protected kids against seven vaccine-preventable diseases in 1983.

The Hib vaccine was added in 1985.

schedule1989s
Twelve doses of five vaccines protected kids against eight vaccine-preventable diseases in 1989.

Next came the hepatitis B vaccine and expanded age ranges for the Hib vaccine.

schedule1994s
Seventeen doses of five vaccines protected kids against eight vaccine-preventable diseases in 1989 (plus the later Td booster).

What’s still missing?

Vaccines and protection against rotavirus, hepatitis A, chicken pox, flu, pneumococcal bacteria, meningococcal bacteria, and HPV.

Even Older Immunization Schedules

While the anti-vaccine movement often claims that kids now get too many vaccines (the too many too soon argument), not understanding that they get far fewer antigens than they once did, with far more protection, most of them will be surprised that some children got even more immunizations that the 1980s schedules they long for.

schedule1940s
A schedule of immunizations from a 1948 AAP Round Table Discussion on the Practical and Immunological Aspects of Pediatric Immunizations

So in the 1940s, some children received:

  • 3 doses of the pertussis vaccine
  • 2 doses of the smallpox vaccine
  • 3 doses of the typhoid vaccine
  • 3 doses of a DT vaccine
  • a DPT booster
  • a tetanus booster
  • a typhoid booster
  • 2 pertussis boosters

Some children also received a flu vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.

With reference to the influence viral vaccine we have endeavored to give it those children who have repeated, frequent, severe upper respiratory tract infection.

Dr. Francis A Garbade – Galveston, Texas 1948

And in 1938, the AAP’s Special Committee on Prophylactic Procedures  Against  Communicable Diseases published a pamphlet,  Routine measures for the prophylaxis of communicable diseases, which became the first Red Book.

Among its recommendations were vaccines to protect against seven infections, including:

  • diphtheria
  • pertussis
  • rabies
  • tetanus
  • tuberculosis
  • typhoid fever
  • small pox

It also mentions vaccines for erysipelas, scarlet fever, staphylococcal infections and chicken pox.

The bottom line is that many kids got a lot more vaccines in the old days than many parents realize or remember.

For More Information on Historical Immunization Schedules:

 

References on Historical Immunization Schedules
Offit, Paul A. Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System? Pediatrics. Vol. 109 No. 1 January 1, 2002 pp. 124-129
Pickering, Larry K. The Red Book Through the Ages. Pediatrics. November 2013, VOLUME 132 / ISSUE 5
Sako, Wallace. Practical and Immunolgic Aspects of Pediatric Immunizations. Pediatrics. 1948;2;722.