Tag: anaphylaxis

How Often Do Severe Events Occur After Vaccines?

Most of us understand that vaccine reactions are usually mild. While severe events can occur after vaccines, they are very rare.

“That measles infections can cause neurologic side effects on rare occasions is known, but the complication rate for vaccinations is low. After infectious measles encephalitis, risk of an autistic regression has occurred in 1/1000 to 1/10,000 cases. If the trend toward delaying vaccination continues because parents remain misinformed about the MMR, the number of children with neurologic complications of measles or rubella will increase. ”

Chez et al on Immunizations, Immunology, and Autism

Unfortunately, being worried about severe reactions sometimes scares parents away from vaccinating and protecting their kids.

How Often Do Severe Events Occur After Vaccines?

Hopefully, realizing just how rare these severe reactions are will help more parents understand that all of the benefits of vaccines (very big) truly do outweigh the risks (very small).

How often do severe events occur after MMR vaccines?
How often do severe events occur after MMR vaccines?

So how often do these events occur?

Are there any statistics?

Using the MMR vaccine information statement as an example, we see that it lists the following severe events:

  • deafness – which is so rare to be associated with MMR that it is hard to tell whether they are caused by the vaccine
  • long-term seizures, coma, or lowered consciousness – which is so rare to be associated with MMR that it is hard to tell whether they are caused by the vaccine
  • brain damage – which is so rare to be associated with MMR that it is hard to tell whether they are caused by the vaccine
  • severe allergic reaction – which occurs in less than 1 out of a million doses
  • serious injury or death – which is so rare to be associated with MMR that it is hard to tell whether they are caused by the vaccine

Wait.

Why can’t we tell if these problems are caused by the vaccine?

In some cases, the association is based on a few case reports.

“With respect to the recent claims of deaths caused by MMR vaccine, drawing broad cause and effect conclusions between vaccination and deaths based on spontaneous reports to VAERS, some of which might be anecdotal or second hand, is not a scientifically valid practice. In fact, a review of the VAERS data reveals that many of the death reports for MMR vaccine involved children with serious preexisting medical conditions or were likely unrelated to vaccination (e.g., accidents). These complete VAERS reports and any accompanying medical records, autopsy reports and death certificates have been reviewed in depth by FDA and CDC physicians and no concerning patterns have emerged that would suggest a causal relationship with the MMR vaccine and death.”

Miller et al on Deaths following vaccination: What does the evidence show?

Mostly though, these type of severe events just occur so rarely after getting vaccinated.

“As for vaccines causing death, again so few deaths can plausibly be attributed to vaccines that it is hard to assess the risk statistically.”

WHO on Six common misconceptions about immunization

At a rate of less than 1 in a million doses, it gets hard to know if something was really caused by the vaccine or if it was just a coincidence, as you don’t have a lot of cases to compare with each other.

Still, it should be reassuring that even if they were caused by the vaccine, these serious events are extremely rare.

Vaccines are safe, with few risks.

More on How Often Severe Events Occur After Vaccines

Why Is Lying About Vaccines Not Criminal?

We are in the middle of the largest measles outbreaks in over 25 years.

Measles cases and deaths are on the rise all over the world.

Much of that rise, especially in the developed world, is because parents believe the misinformation that the vocal anti-vax folks are pushing.

Why Is Lying About Vaccines Not Criminal?

Which has to make you wonder – why is lying about vaccines and scarring parents into skipping or delaying vaccines not criminal?

A sociopath wrote this... Is that the one true statement in Kennedy's rant?
A sociopath wrote this… Is that the one true statement in Kennedy’s rant?

For example, take the above Instagram post by Robert F Kennedy, Jr.

His claim that the “guidelines stipulate that a child would need to experience anaphylactic shock — a life threatening reaction — to EVERY vaccine-requiring eight near death experiences — to qualify for an exemption” simply isn’t true.

A severe allergic reaction is a contraindication to getting vaccinated.

If a child had a severe allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, to a previous dose of any vaccine or to a vaccine component, then they would get an medical exemption to that vaccine. They could also easily get a medical exemption to all other vaccines that used those same components, such as gelatin, eggs, or yeast, etc.

It is silly to think that you would have to have an anaphylactic reaction to each and every vaccine, as Kennedy claims, to get a medical exemption to getting vaccinated.

Did the CDC publish new guidelines in 2019 changing what is considered to be a contraindication, another Kennedy claim?

Mild to moderate local reactions and low-grade or moderate fever were removed as a condition commonly mispercieved as a contraindication or precaution, but that was done last January. There were no big changes recently!
Mild to moderate local reactions and low-grade or moderate fever were removed as a condition commonly mispercieved as a contraindication or precaution, but that was done last January. There were no big changes recently!

Nope.

And the thing is, these things are incorrectly perceived as contraindications or precautions to vaccination because they are not a problem with vaccination!

You would have to be a sociopath to put kids at risk for a vaccine-preventable disease for no good reason!

For example, why skip the HPV vaccine just because a child is already infection with HPV? Are they infected with all of the strains of HPV that the vaccine protects against? There is no extra risk of cervical cancer from the vaccine if you are already infected, just the fact that you might get cervical cancer because you were already infected before you got protected from the vaccine!

Why is it not homicide to scare someone away from getting vaccinated and protected with a vaccine that prevents cancer by spreading this type of misinformation?

Why is lying about vaccines not criminal?

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Do Vaccines Cause Mastocytosis?

Children with mastocytosis have extra mast cells, a normal type of cell that we all have that release histamine and other chemicals when activated.

As you can imagine, having too many mast cells, which release too much histamine, isn’t a good thing.

What Causes Mastocytosis?

Mastocytosis, some forms of which have been known since 1869, is caused by spontaneous mutations that aren’t passed on to future generations (somatic mutations).

“Most forms of mastocytosis are caused by a mutation of the KIT gene on the 4q12 chromosome – a mutation that increases cellular reproduction. The c-KIT gene mutation creates an overgrowth of one cell line of mast cells.”

What is mastocytosis?

And the symptoms you have with mastocytosis depends on the type you have, which can include localized (solitary, maculopapular cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous) vs systemic mastocytosis.

“The severity of the symptoms associated with mastocytosis may vary from mild to life-threatening. In general, symptoms occurring in mastocytosis are mainly due to the release of chemicals from the mast cells and thus produce symptoms associated with an allergic reaction.”

Mastocytosis – Rare Disease Database

Localized mastocytosis is usually present at birth or early infancy.

Do Vaccines Cause Mastocytosis?

Since it is caused by spontaneous mutations and is often present at birth or early infancy, there is no reason to think that vaccines could cause mastocytosis.

Vaccines and Mastocytosis

That’s not to say that you shouldn’t think about vaccines if your child has mastocytosis.

Although almost anything can be a trigger for kids with mastocytosis, from insect stings, skin rubbing, antibiotics, aspirin, cough medications, exposure to heat or cold, and stress, there have been a few reports of vaccines being a trigger.

“In childhood, the risk for anaphylactic episodes was limited to children with extensive skin disease, but nonexistent for children with mastocytoma or limited macular lesions. This is in good agreement with the literature, where children with anaphylaxis were described as having clinically severe skin involvement of mastocytosis, although the levels of skin involvement were not given and tryptase concentrations not determined. Children with fatal anaphylaxis, described in three case reports, all had suffered from extensive blistering skin disease…”

Brockow et al on Anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis: a study on history, clinical features and risk factors in 120 patients.

It is important to note that these are kids with severe disease though and not the more typical type of localized disease that the average child will have.

An infant with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Lange et al. (CC BY-NC 3.0)
An infant with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Lange et al. (CC BY-NC 3.0)

It should also be noted that viral and bacterial infections with fever, some of which are vaccine preventable, can also be a trigger.

Still, if your child has extensive skin disease, your specialist will likely talk about premedication before vaccines and watching your child closely afterward in case they have an anaphylactic reaction.

Should they get fewer vaccines at a time?

Surprisingly, it depends on who you ask, but it should be noted that all of the discussions about vaccines are for kids with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM), a rare form of cutaneous mastocytosis.

“Although patients with mastocytosis can be vaccinated according to the standard schedule, precautions to prevent MC activation and degranulation have been formulated by experts, particularly in cases of diffuse skin manifestations”

And none say to skip vaccines, although some say to use an alternative immunization schedule, getting one vaccine at a time perhaps, especially for the initial doses.

It should be clear that kids with mastocytosis can and should be vaccinated though and vaccines do not actually cause mastocytosis.

More on Vaccines and Mastocytosis

Myths About the Yellow Fever Vaccine

Endemic yellow fever was eliminated in the United States in 1905, way before the first yellow fever vaccine was developed (1935) and licensed (1953).

How did that work?

Yellow fever is a now vaccine preventable disease that is spread by mosquito bites.

In the United States, it was actually eliminated by controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that spread the yellow fever virus before the vaccine was even developed. These control efforts were also done in Cuba, Panama, and Ecuador, etc., places where yellow fever was common and led to outbreaks in the United States.

Why Haven’t We Eradicated Yellow Fever?

So why is yellow fever still a problem if we can control the the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry the yellow fever virus?

“Mosquitoes breed in tropical rainforests, humid, and semi-humid environments, as well as around bodies of still water in and close to human habitations in urban settings. Increased contact between humans and infected mosquitoes, particularly in urban areas where people have not been vaccinated for yellow fever, can create epidemics.”

Yellow fever: Questions and Answers

It’s because we can control the mosquitoes in urban areas, in and around cities. You can’t really control or eliminate mosquitoes in tropical rain forest regions, which is why it is difficult to eradicate yellow fever, malaria, dengue fever, and other mosquito borne diseases.

But we have a vaccine, don’t we?

“Eradication of yellow fever is not feasible since we are unable to control the virus in the natural animal hosts.”

Yellow fever: Questions and Answers

Unfortunately, we aren’t the only ones who can become infected with yellow fever. Monkeys get infected with the yellow fever virus in rain forests, infect Haemagogus and Sabethes mosquitoes, which bite people in those areas.

“Urban transmission of yellow fever virus occurs when the virus is spread from human to human by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.”

Yellow fever – Brazil

That likely means that yellow fever will never be completely eradicated, unlike small pox.

Yellow Fever Vaccines Myths

But just because yellow fever can’t be eradicated doesn’t mean that it can’t be eliminated.

A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine is safe and provides life-long protection for 99% of people.

“Vaccination is the most powerful known measure for yellow fever prevention: a single dose can provide life-long immunity at a cost of approximately US$1.”

WHO on Eliminating Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE) Strategy: Meeting demand for yellow fever vaccines

And as cases of yellow fever increase in some countries, like Brazil, getting more people vaccinated is the only way to stop this deadly disease.

People line up to get a yellow fever vaccine near Kinshasa.
People line up to get a yellow fever vaccine near Kinshasa. Photo by WHO/E. Soteras Jalil

Tragically, anti-vaccination myths and misinformation may be keeping folks from getting vaccinated and protected. Propaganda and anti-vaccine scare videos have them thinking that the yellow fever vaccine is dangerous, part of a conspiracy to depopulate the world, or that it doesn’t work.

It is also important to know that:

  • When traveling to or from some countries, a yellow fever vaccine isn’t enough – you need an International Certificate of Vaccination proving that you were vaccinated.

    You should not skip getting the yellow fever vaccine if you are traveling to an area where yellow fever is endemic, including many parts of areas of Africa and South America.

  • While you are most at risk during the rainy season, especially during outbreaks, it is also possible to get yellow fever during the dry season.
  • Yellow fever is a serious, life-threatening disease.
  • There is no cure for yellow fever.
  • While serious side effects to the yellow fever vaccine have been reported, including anaphylaxis, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND), and yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), they are very rare.
  • The yellow fever vaccine is a live virus vaccine, but shedding is not an issue. Unless at a high risk of exposure, getting the yellow fever vaccine is usually not recommended if you are pregnant or breastfeeding though.
  • It is not usually necessary to get a booster dose of the yellow fever vaccine.
  • Some countries require proof of yellow fever vaccination if you have traveled from a country where there is still a risk of getting yellow fever, so that you don’t import yellow fever into their country.

As yellow fever cases are on the rise in Brazil, with an associated increase in travel associated cases, it is important that everyone understand that vaccines are safe and necessary.

What to Know About Yellow Fever Vaccine Myths

Yellow fever cases are increasing and so are anti-vaccine myths about the yellow fever vaccine, which are keeping some folks from getting vaccinated and protected, even as they are threatened by a potential outbreak.

More on Yellow Fever Vaccines Myths