Tag: immunizations

Discontinued Vaccines

tripedia
The Tripedia DTaP vaccine was discontinued in 2013.

Most people know that the RotaShield rotavirus vaccine was discontinued in 1999 because it was found to be linked to intussusception.

It took eight years for a new rotavirus vaccine to be licensed.

Lymerix, a Lyme disease vaccine was discontinued in 2002. Unfortunately, we still don’t have a new replacement Lyme disease vaccine.

Vaccines That Have Been Discontinued

More commonly, a vaccine gets discontinued with little notice, as there are other options to keep kids vaccinated and protected.

Other vaccines that are no longer made, include:

  • Menomume – an older meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine was discontinued in 2017 in the US as it was replaced with the newer meningococcal conjugate vaccines Menactra and Menveo.
  • MenHibrix – a meningococcal – Hib combination vaccine that was discontinued in the US in 2016 due to low demand
  • Cervarix – an HPV vaccine that was discontinued in the US in 2016 due to low demand
  • Comvax –  a Hib/Hepatitis B combination – discontinued in 2014
  • Tetanus toxoid – discontinued 2013
  • Tripedia – a DTaP vaccine – discontinued 2011
  • TriHIBit – a DTaP/Hib combination
  • JE-VAX – discontinued 2005
  • Attenuvax – measles vaccine
  • Mumpsvax – mumps vaccine
  • Meruvax II – rubella vaccine
  • M-R-Vax – measles and rubella combo
  • M-M-Vax – measles and mumps combo
  • Biavax II – rubella and mumps combo
  • Heptavax-B – the original hepatitis B vaccine
  • HIB-Vax – the original Hib vaccine
  • Plague vaccine
  • Poliovax
  • Dryvax – smallpox vaccine
  • Measles-Smallpox combination vaccine
  • Diptussis – a diphtheria/pertussis combination (1949-55)
  • Quadrigen – a DTP/Polio combination (1959-68)
  • Streptococcus vaccine (1952-88)
  • Serobacterin – a pertussis vaccine (1945-54)
  • Rocky mountain spotted fever vaccine (1942-78)
  • Typhus vaccine (1941-79)
  • smallpox vaccine (1917-1976)

Most of these vaccines were discontinued because they simply became obsolete.

Orig. Title: SPvac806.8a
A smallpox vaccination kit included the diluent, a vial of Dryvax smallpox vaccine, and a bifurcated needle.

The Hib-Vax and Heptavax-B vaccines, for example, both use older technology, so these vaccines were discontinued when newer Hib and hepatitis B vaccines were introduced.

And some vaccines are discontinued  or are phased out when they get an update:

  • MMR -> MMR-II (1978)
  • Prevnar 7 -> Prevnar 13 (2010)
  • Gardasil -> Gardasil 9 (2014)

Still other vaccines, like Tripedia and TriHIBit, seemed to get discontinued as a business decision. Through mergers, Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd. ended up with two DTaP vaccines. They had their own Daptacel, but also had Tripedia, a vaccine they acquired from Pasteur Merieux. They ended up discontinuing Tripedia.

Merck also stopped making Comvax not because of “any  product safety or manufacturing issues,” but rather “as part of its ongoing effort to focus company resources on opportunities that provide the greatest value for customers, patients, and public health…”

Cervarix was discontinued because of low market demand. The competing HPV vaccine, Gardasil, had the much larger market share.

Vaccine Manufacturers and Discontinued Vaccines

And of course, some vaccine manufacturers simply stopped making vaccines.

The Texas Department of Health Resources once had a license to make vaccines, including DTP, diphtheria, DT, pertussis, tetanus, Td, and typhoid vaccines since 1950. They completely exited the vaccine market in 1979.

In the 1970s and 80s, dozens of vaccines were discontinued as Miles Inc., Eli Lilly, Parke Davis, and other companies stopped making vaccines.

While that is often downplayed these days, it is important to realize that we used to have much more competition among vaccine manufacturers. For example, in the early 1970s, the DTP vaccine was made by at least 11 different companies! We now have just two that make DTaP. And in many other cases, like for Prevnar, MMR-II, polio, and the chicken pox vaccine, there is just one manufacturer.

For More Information on Discontinued Vaccines:

Updated on February 7, 2018

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History of Vaccine Manufacturers

Currently, the main manufacturers of vaccines used in the United States include:

  1. Emergent Biosolutions – Anthrax vaccine
  2. GSK Vaccines – Bexsero, Boostrix, Cervarix, Energix-B, Fluarix, Havrix, Hiberix, Infanrix, Kinrix, Menveo, Pediarix, Rabavert, Rotarix
  3. Mass Biologics (Massachusetts Public Health Biological Laboratories) – made the first DTP vaccine and continues making a generic Td vaccine
  4. MedImmune (owned by AstraZenaca) – FluMist
  5. Merck – Gardasil, MMR-II, PedvaxHIB, Pneumovax23, ProQuad, Recombivax HB, RotaTeq, Vaqta, Varivax, Zostavax
  6. PaxVax – Vivotif typhoid vaccine
  7. Pfizer – Prevnar, Trumenba
  8. Protein Sciences Corporation – Flublok
  9. Sanofi Pasteur – Adacel, Daptacel, Fluzone, Imovax Rabies, Pentacel, IPOL, Pentacel, Menactra, YF-Vax,
  10. Seqirus – Afluria, Fluad, Flucelvax, Fluvirin
  11. Valneva – Japanese encephalitis vaccine (IXIARO), Dukoral cholera vaccine

Of course, there used to be many more.

During the past fifty years, companies devoted solely or primarily to manufacturing vaccines (such as Lederle and Praxis) have been acquired by other pharmaceutical companies; the number of companies making vaccines has decreased from twenty-six in 1967 to seventeen in 1980 and to five in 2004 (GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi-Aventis, Merck, Wyeth, and Chiron).

Paul Offit, MD

And then there were four…

21st Century Vaccine Industry Changes

Unlike changes in the 1970s, the latest changes in the vaccine industry and among vaccine manufacturers don’t have a lot to do with companies being forced out of business because of lawsuits.

Mergers and consolidation seem to be fueling the changes.

For example, Novartis, recently considered one of the top five pharmaceutical corporations that make vaccines, sold off its vaccine business to CSL Limited and GSK.

CSL Limited then formed Seqirus to produce their flu vaccines.

In other changes:

  • Pfizer acquired Wyeth in 2008
  • Chiron Corp became Novartis Vaccines in 2006
  • Aventis Pasteur and Sanofi merged to become Sanofi Pasteur in 2004
  • SmithKline Beecham and Glaxo Wellcome merged to become GlaxoSmithKline in 2000

But you don’t really get how big these mergers are until you understand that:

  • Pasteur Merieux and Aventis merged to become Aventis Pasteur in 1999
  • Wyeth acquired Lederle Laboratories/Praxis in 1994
  • Lederle Laboratories and Praxis  merged in 1989
  • Connaught Laboratories was purchased by the French Merieux Institute, forming Pasteur Merieux in 1989

Still other vaccine manufacturers simply stopped making vaccines.

Older Vaccine Manufacturers

What ever happened to these vaccine manufacturers?

eli-lilly-vaccine
Eli Lilly used to make a Small Pox vaccine
  • Bionetics Research Inc.
  • Cutter Laboratories – made anthrax vaccine and the Salk polio vaccine that was involved in the Cutter incident. Was bought by Bayer in 1974, but they no longer make vaccines.
  • Dow Chemical (Pitman-Moore) – got out of the vaccine business in 1977-78 and stopped making 12 vaccines
  • Eli Lilly – got out of the vaccine business in 1976 and stopped making 14 vaccines
  • Evans Medical Ltd.
  • Mich (Michigan Department of Public Health) – once made 8 vaccines
  • Miles Inc. – exited the vaccine market in 1970 and stopped making 11 vaccines
  • North American Vaccine, Inc. – was purchased by Baxter International Inc. in 2000, a company that sold off its remaining vaccine business in 2000, including vaccines for meningitis C and tick borne encephalitis. North American Vaccine, Inc. once sold a DTaP vaccine – Certiva.
  • Organon Teknika Corporation
  • Parke-Davis – purchased by Warner-Lampert in 1970, but had sold off their flu vaccine division as King Pharmaceuticals, stopping production of 16 other vaccines. King Pharmaceuticals later changed its name to Parkdale Pharmaceuticals and stopped making vaccines in 2002.
  • Richardson-Merrill – got out of the vaccine business in 1976-78 and stopped making 14 vaccines
  • Sclavo
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals – purchased by Abbott Laboratories in 2010, but Solvay’s flu vaccine business was sold off and their Influvac vaccine is no longer used in the United States
  • Squibb & Sons – now known as Bristol-Myers Squibb, since their 1989 merger, Squibb used to make vaccines, including Maurice Hilleman‘s first Japanese B encephalitis vaccine
  • Texas Department of Health Resources – exited the vaccine market in 1979 and stopped making 7 vaccines
  • University of Illinois – once made the BCG vaccine

Unlike other companies that merged or had their vaccine business sold off, these companies and their vaccines are gone. And some, like Bionetics Research Inc. and Organon Teknika Corporation were acquired by the same companies (ABL). They just don’t make vaccines anymore.

For More Information on Vaccine Manufacturers:

References on Vaccine Manufacturers:The Children’s Vaccine Initiative: Achieving the Vision. Historical Record of Vaccine Product License Holders in the United States
Pereira,Nuno Sousa. Vaccine Supply: Effects of Regulation and Competition. International Journal of the Economics of Business 18(2):239-271.October 2010

Vaccines In Development

Many of us have heard the myth that there are “300 new vaccines in the pipeline.”

It takes a long time to develop a new vaccine.
It takes a long time to develop a new vaccine.

Of course, no one really believes that means scientists are out there developing vaccines against 300 separate diseases or that it will mean that kids will some day get 300 more vaccines.

Vaccines In Development

So what does it mean?

Surprisingly, it doesn’t even mean 300 new vaccines are in the pipeline anymore. The latest, 2016 update of the Medicines in Development for Vaccines report from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America now states that there are “More Than 250 Vaccines in Development Pipeline.”

To understand what that means, you have to take a look at the vaccines being developed, which include:

  • 124 for infectious diseases
  • 105 for cancers
  • thirteen for allergies
  • eight for neurological disorders
  • seven for other conditions

And even of the 124 vaccines in development or testing for infectious diseases:

  • 36 are to prevent or treat HIV
  • 25 are to prevent influenza, including new nasal flu vaccines
  • 8 are for RSV
  • 8 are for Ebola

So when they talk about “300 vaccines in the pipeline,” remember that even when you consider that only 124 of them are for infectious diseases, of those, 77 are for just 4 different infectious diseases.

The other 47 vaccines in various stages of development include vaccines for CMV, tuberculosis, dengue, Zika, GBS, West Nile virus, Staph, herpes, hepatitis C, E. coli, pseudomonas, malaria, C. diff infections, Shigella, norovirus, anthrax, smallpox, and ricin.

Some others are for infections that you have likely never heard of, including viral hemorrhagic fever, Ross River virus infections, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis.

And unfortunately, very few of these infectious disease vaccines are in stage III trials, which means that very, very few are close to seeing the inside of a pediatrician’s office.

Potential New Vaccines

Which vaccines have the greatest potential to be protecting our kids soon?

A few vaccines have been recently approved, including:

  • Dengvaxia – a dengue fever vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur which has already been approved in Brazil, Mexico, the Philippines, El Salvador and Costa Rica (endemic areas)
  • Shingrix – a new shingles vaccine (adults only)
  • Vaxelis – a hexavelent vaccine (a combination vaccine, so technically not a new vaccine or at least it doesn’t mean that your child will get an additional shot, in fact, getting Vaxelis means getting fewer shots)

Based on which vaccines have completed phase III trials and have been submitted for registration to the FDA, the one likely candidate seems to be:

  • an Ebola vaccine from Merck (V920 has finished phase III trials as in under review)

Other vaccines in late development phases include:

  • an MMR vaccine from GSK (already available in other countries)
  • a 15-valent pneumococcal vaccine from Merck (V114, in Phase III trials – would compete with Prevnar 13)
  • Men Quad TT – a “second generation” meningococcal vaccine
  • Bexsero MenB vaccine for infants (in Phase III trials)
  • a Clostridium difficile infection vaccine for seniors by Pfizer (in Phase III trials)
  • a 20-valent pneumococcal vaccine from Pfizer, the makers of Prevnar (20vPnC, in Phase III trials)

And we may see the combination, pentavalent MenABCW-135Y meningococcal vaccine by 2021.

So much for 300 new vaccines…

For More Information on New Vaccines:

Updated May 26, 2019

Maurice Hilleman – The 20th Century’s Leading Vaccinologist

Do you know who Maurice Hilleman was or what he did?

He once said that:

Preventative medicine, and little else with the possible exception of antibioitcs, has brought about the lengthening of the average human lifespan to the Biblical threescore and ten years. Among the most potent and effective weapons in accomplishing this longevity have been the vaccines.

If you don’t who he is, you will likely be surprised that he is often described as the:

  • unsung giant of vaccinology
  • greatest vaccinologist
  • 20th century’s leading vaccinologist
  • greatest scientist of the 20th century
  • father of modern vaccines

Tragically, he has also recently been described as the MMR vaccine’s forgotten hero.

Even though he developed 8 of the 14 most commonly used vaccines that save at least 8 million lives a year, few people know about him or that he developed the measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningitis, pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, and rubella vaccines.

You might even be more familiar with his daughter, as the Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus is in the current mumps vaccine. Hilleman developed the mumps vaccine after culturing the virus from his sick daughter, Jeryl Lynn, and then attenuating the virus.

With all he did, it’s not surprising that Bill Gates called Hilleman one of the most influential vaccine heroes.

Maurice Hilleman also:

  • defined antigenic drift and shift for influenza
  • discovered and purified interferon
  • identified adenovirus
  • discovered SV40

All together, he developed 40  experimental and licensed animal and human vaccines.

Hilleman once called Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, von Behring, Ehrlich and Lister giants of their time – the late 18th and 19th centuries.

Similarly, Maurice Hilleman was, without question, a giant of our time.

For More Information on Maurice Hilleman: