Pre-Vaccine Era Mumps Outbreaks
In the pre-vaccine era, mumps was a common childhood infection that could cause orchitis, meningitis, pancreatitis, deafness, and even death.
There were about 212,000 cases a year in the early 1960s, before the first mumps vaccine was licensed in 1968.
Post-Vaccine Era Mumps Outbreaks
As with other vaccine-preventable diseases, there was a big drop in cases of mumps once the mumps vaccine was introduced.
In 1968, there were just over 152,000 cases and 25 deaths and just ten years later, in 1978, that was down to 16,817 cases and 3 deaths.
Once the recommendation for the second dose of MMR came in 1990, it looked like mumps was on it’s way out.
We went from 5,292 cases and one death that year, to just 906 cases and no deaths in 1995. When measles hit its low point of 37 cases in 2004, there were just 258 cases of mumps.
That wasn’t the end for mumps though, as we had some up and down years, including big outbreaks in:
- 2006 – 6,584 cases among Midwest college students and one death
- 2008 – only 454 cases, but one death
- 2009 – 1,991 cases and two deaths
- 2010 – 2,612 cases mostly among Orthodox Jewish communities and two deaths
- 2011 – 370 cases
- 2012 – 229 cases
- 2013 – 584 cases
- 2014 – 1,223 cases involving a large outbreak in Ohio and in the NHL
- 2015 – 1,057 cases mostly among university students in Iowa and Illinois
Could this all be because of waning immunity?
2016 Mumps Outbreaks
So far in 2016, the CDC reports that there have been:
- at least 4,619 cases of mumps
- cases have been reported in all states except Delaware, Louisiana, Vermont, and Wyoming
- seven states, AK, IA, IN, IL, MA, NY, and OK with more than 100 cases in 2016
The most recent, ongoing outbreaks are in:
- Arkansas (at least 2,159 cases) – which may be fueled by a large community of Marshall Islanders living in close quarters, with low levels of vaccinations among adults in the community
- Oklahoma (at least 324 cases)
- Washington (93 cases)
- Long Beach, New York (45 cases), and at State University of New York (SUNY) at New Paltz in New York (13 cases)
- Harvard University (4 cases)
- University of Missouri (31 cases)
- Tufts University (9 cases)
- Texas – with most of the cases in North Texas, including a large outbreak in Johnson County (72 cases) and two other outbreaks linked to four different cheerleading competitions.
At SUNY New Paltz, most of the cases were among the swim team. In addition, 20 unvaccinated students were sent home from school under quarantine until December 3.
In Arkansas, 42 workplaces, 39 schools in six school districts, six colleges and two private schools in Benton, Carroll, Conway, Faulkner, Madison, Pulaski, and Washington counties are seeing most of the cases. A quarantine is in effect, with unvaccinated children being kept out of school for 26 days from the date of exposure or for the duration of the outbreak, whichever is longer.
Many of these outbreaks occur despite many of the cases having had two doses of the MMR vaccine. A third dose is sometimes recommended during these outbreaks.
That doesn’t mean that the MMR vaccine doesn’t work. After all, just compare today’s rates of mumps, even if they are a little higher than we would like, to pre-vaccine levels…
Getting two doses of the MMR vaccine is still the best way to avoid mumps.
There is no general recommendations to get extra shots though.
Keep in mind that the MMR vaccine isn’t just for kids. Adults who didn’t have mumps when they were kids (or who were born before 1957, when most kids got mumps), should make sure they are vaccinated (at least one dose) and protected too.
For More Information on Mumps Outbreaks:
- Pinkbook – Mumps
- CDC – Mumps Cases and Outbreaks
- CDC – Outbreak-Related Questions and Answers for Patients
- The 2014 Ohio Mumps Outbreak
- Mumps Outbreak at a University and Recommendation for a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine — Illinois, 2015–2016
- Early reports show mumps on the rise in 2016, including on campuses
- Harvard has a mumps outbreak. Here’s why the virus can have a field day on campus.
- NHL Mumps Outbreak : What’s Up With The Vaccine?
- Harvard mumps outbreak – not an indictment of vaccines
References on Mumps Outbreaks:
CDC. Reported Cases and Deaths from Vaccine Preventable Diseases, United States, 1950-2013.
Updated on December 24, 2016