Tag: cancer vaccines

Did the FDA Approve a New HPV Vaccine for Adults?

What do you know about the HPV vaccine?

Hopefully you know that it can prevent cervical cancer and that lots of folks spread misinformation that is intended to confuse and scare you away from getting vaccinated and protected with it and other vaccines.

Did the FDA Approve a New HPV Vaccine for Adults?

News that the approved ages for Gardasil have been expanded will likely add to that confusion for a little while.

The FDA simply approved the expanded use of the existing Gardasil 9 vaccine – not a new vaccine.
The FDA simply approved the expanded use of the existing Gardasil 9 vaccine – not a new vaccine.

The first thing to understand is that the FDA did not approve a new Gardasil vaccine for older adults.

They very simply expanded the age recommendations for who should get the existing Gardasil 9 vaccine, which was approved back in 2014, replacing the original Gardasil vaccine, which was approved in 2006.

“The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a supplemental application for Gardasil 9 (Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant) expanding the approved use of the vaccine to include women and men aged 27 through 45 years.”

Why the new age indication?

“In a study in approximately 3,200 women 27 through 45 years of age, followed for an average of 3.5 years, Gardasil was 88 percent effective in the prevention of a combined endpoint of persistent infection, genital warts, vulvar and vaginal precancerous lesions, cervical precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer related to HPV types covered by the vaccine.”

But isn’t the whole point of giving the HPV vaccine to preteens that you want to get them vaccinated and protected before they are sexually active and exposed to and infected by HPV?

Sure, but if you didn’t, and unless you are sure that you have been exposed to and have been infected by all 9 types of HPV strains that Gardasil 9 protects you against, then the vaccine is still a good idea when you are older.

Except FDA approval doesn’t automatically mean that your insurance company will pay for it.

That usually comes once a vaccine is formally added to the immunization schedule by the ACIP.

“In a 2005 study, 92% of insurance plans reported following Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations to determine covered vaccines; of those, 60% could extend coverage within 3 months after issuance of recommendations and 13% in 1 month.”

Lindley et al on Financing the Delivery of Vaccines to Children and Adolescents: Challenges to the Current System

And Obamacare still requires insurance plans to provide ACIP-recommended vaccines at no charge.

Will Gardasil 9 be added to the immunization schedule for adults?

The extended age indication for Gardasil 9 will be discussed at the next ACIP meeting.
The extended age indication for Gardasil 9 will be discussed at the next ACIP meeting.

We should know sooner, rather than later. It is on the agenda for the next ACIP meeting on October 25…

More on Gardasil for Older Adults

Does HPV Vaccination Decrease the Chances You Will Get a Pap Test?

HPV vaccines, including Gardasil and Cervarix, can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer.

That doesn’t mean that you can stop getting Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer though.

Why not?

Vaccines are not 100% effective and while the HPV vaccines protect against the strains of HPV that are most likely to cause cervical cancer, they don’t include every single strain.

Does HPV Vaccination Decrease the Chances You Will Get a Pap Test?

Again, HPV vaccines don’t replace pap tests.

Whether or not a woman is vaccinated, if they have no extra risk factors (can mean extra screening), they should have:

  • their first Pap test at age 21 years, to look for cell changes on the cervix that can be a sign of precancers (was previously at age 18 years if sexually active)
  • a Pap test every 3 years from age 21 through 29 years (was previously done every year)
  • a Pap test with HPV cotesting (actually tests for the presence of HPV in cervical cells) every 5 years or a Pap test alone every 3 years from age 30 through 65 years

This routine testing can help find precancers before they turn into cervical cancer.

Why would anyone stop getting a pap test after getting vaccinated?

They shouldn’t.

Some folks worry that they might though, because those who are vaccinated might think they are at lower risk to get HPV and cervical cancer.

#SaidNoDoctor, except Dr. Jay Gordon, who made this statement about the HPV vaccine on the Ricki Lake Show.
#SaidNoDoctor, except Dr. Jay Gordon, who made this statement about the HPV vaccine on the Ricki Lake Show.

Fortunately, most studies show that this doesn’t happen. Not surprisingly, studies have also confirmed that HPV vaccines are safe and they don’t encourage kids to have unprotected sex.

And data from the National Center of Health Statistics show that a steady number of women over age 18 years have been getting Pap tests since 1987. Numbers did drop a bit recently for young women between the ages of 18 to 24 years, but that coincides with the 2003 and 2012 changes for when to get Pap testing.

What makes this all a bit confusing is that there are actually some suggestions that women who have been vaccinated at an early age (before they are sexually active), with the newest HPV vaccines (cover more HPV types) might actually be able to get HPV testing instead of a Pap test, can start getting tested at a later age, and can get fewer tests.

None of those are formal recommendations though, so women should keep getting their Pap tests on schedule, whether or not they have been vaccinated.

What about reports of increased rates of cervical cancer in Sweden that are linked to an increase in HPV vaccination rates?

Lars Adersson became a pseudonym when he was outed as not being associated with Karolinska Institute.
Lars Andersson became a pseudonym when he was outed as not being associated with Karolinska Institute.

 

In addition to fake credentials, the author came to bogus conclusions, as although there has been an increase in rates of cervical cancer in some of the smaller counties in Sweden, it is thought to be due to differences in regional cancer prevention. To put it more simply, if it was due to getting vaccinated, then since immunization rates aren’t that different in those counties (just like immunization rates vs autism rates in the United States), then why didn’t rates of cervical cancer go up everywhere?

“Joakim Dillner, professor of infectious epidemiology at Karolinska Institute and register holder for the National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Analysis, says, however, to the Medical Journal that there is nothing in the allegations that the increase would be due to HPV vaccination.”

KI investigates suspected false scientist: “Extremely serious”

Of note, Sweden, recently had the highest participation in their cervical cancer screening program ever, at 82.4% of the population.

“HPV-vaccination is so far associated with equal or higher attendance to cervical screening in Sweden in a cohort of opportunistically vaccinated young women.”

Herweijer et al on The Participation of HPV-Vaccinated Women in a National Cervical Screening Program: Population-Based Cohort Study

So much for the idea that getting an HPV vaccine decreases your likelihood of getting a Pap test…

What to Know About HPV Vaccines and Pap Testing

Although HPV vaccines can decrease your risk of cervical cancer, that shouldn’t influence your decision to get a Pap test.

More on HPV Vaccines and Pap Testing

Can Vaccines Cause Cancer?

We know that several vaccines can prevent cancer, including the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and hepatitis B vaccine.

A cancer treatment vaccine, Provenge, has also been approved by the FDA to treat metastatic prostate cancer. Others are in development.

What Causes Cancer?

It seems like everything causes cancer, doesn’t it?

Did you see the media reports about coffee?

“Cancer is a complex group of diseases with many possible causes.”

American Cancer Society on What Causes Cancer?

Some of the most common causes of cancer include:

  • genetic mutations
  • smoking and tobacco
  • heavy alcohol use
  • unprotected exposure to UV rays in sunlight
  • infections

Fortunately, we can protect ourselves from many of these common causes of cancer.

Can Vaccines Cause Cancer?

Vaccines don’t cause cancer, but that doesn’t stop anti-vaccine websites from saying that they do.

“Cancer is part of our new normal. One in two men and one in three women will receive a cancer diagnosis in their lifetimes. But it’s not just adults. If you can’t bring yourself to focus on this topic for you, please do it for your children.”

Louise Kuo Habakus (Fearless Parent) on Do Vaccines Cause Cancer?

Cancer can definitely become part of your “new normal” if you or a friend or family member gets diagnosed.

National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer statistics.
National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer statistics.

Fortunately, cancer rates have been stable, with declining mortality rates. In children, cancer rates have been rising, but only slightly, and nothing like the boom in rates that some folks describe.

Anti-vaccine folks promote the idea that more people are sick, more people have cancer, and in general, everyone is unhealthy, because it fits with their idea that vaccines are dangerous for everyone.

How do they link vaccines and cancer?

They often push the idea that vaccines cause cancer because the original polio vaccines were found to be contaminated with SV40, or simian virus 40. SV40 has not been linked to cancer though.

What about formaldehyde?

Some vaccines contain formaldehyde and formaldehyde is carcinogenic, so how can you say that vaccines don’t cause cancer?

While some vaccines do contain formaldehyde, remember that it is also naturally found in our bodies.

“Carcinogens do not cause cancer at all times, under all circumstances.”

American Cancer Society

It is the long-term exposure to high amounts of formaldehyde, usually inhaled formaldehyde, that is the big concern. Those most at risk would be workers who might be exposed to inhaled formaldehyde. The small amount of formaldehyde in vaccines is safe and does not cause cancer.

Another anti-vaccine talking point? Misusing vaccine package inserts to make you think that vaccines aren’t properly evaluated for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

“To ensure the safety of new vaccines, preclinical toxicology studies are conducted prior to the initiation of, and concurrently with, clinical studies. There are five different types of preclinical toxicology study in the evaluation of vaccine safety: single and/or repeat dose, reproductive and developmental, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and safety pharmacology. If any adverse effects are observed in the course of these studies, they should be fully evaluated and a final safety decision made accordingly. ”

M.D. Green on the Preclinical Toxicology of Vaccines

They are.

Vaccines are safe and necessary. They don’t cause cancer.

What to Know About Vaccines and Cancer

Several vaccines can prevent cancer and there is even a vaccine that can treat cancer. Vaccines don’t cause cancer though.

More on Vaccines and Cancer

America’s New Normal: Propaganda About the Unhealthiest Generation

My son started to have migraines when he was about 11 years old.

Must be stress, BPA, poor eating habits, all of the screen time, or vaccines, right?

“Americans spend the least on food, the most on health care, have the most highly vaccinated kids, and have the sickest kids of any industrialized country. More kids than not are now chronically ill, developmentally delayed, and eating or injecting prescription medications from cradle to grave – which is going to be a quicker trip for them than it was for their parents, according to data on life expectancy in the US. We are inured to childhood autism, epilepsy, allergy, asthma, diabetes, obesity, Crohn’s disease and cancer. We are dying younger. We are going backwards.”

Judy Converse on America’s New Normal: Chronically Ill Kids

That likely seems like a young age to get migraines and would fit well with the narrative that kids today are part of the unhealthiest generation ever.

Except that I started to get migraines at about the same age, and so did my mother. Like many of the other conditions that seem to be ballooning today, migraines have a genetic component.

The Unhealthiest Generation?

The CDC has long kept statistics on everything from asthma and cancer rates to diabetes and life expectancy rates and helps folks see how healthy kids really are today.
The CDC has long kept statistics on everything from asthma and cancer rates to diabetes and life expectancy rates and helps folks see how healthy kids really are today.

Who says that today’s kids are part of the unhealthiest generation ever?

Mostly anti-vaccine folks who blame vaccines for making kids unhealthy and alternative medical providers who think their holistic remedies will fix all of the problems they see in our unhealthy kids who they claim are full of “toxins.”

Toxins? If you are going to believe that our kids are all sick, then you have to buy into the narrative that toxins are everywhere, especially in vaccines, and they are making kids sick.

Of course, none of that is true.

Vaccines are safe and work to prevent us from getting sick and there are 2 to 3 million fewer deaths in the world each year because people are vaccinated and protected.

“From developing groundbreaking treatments for deadly chronic diseases to saving babies who are born premature, pediatric researchers have increased the ability of children to live full and fulfilling lives that only a few decades before would have been tragically cut short.”

Sandra G. Hassink, MD on the 7 Great Achievements in Pediatric Research

And today’s kids, all 73.6 million of them in the United States, aren’t the unhealthiest. They are actually a very healthy generation, being born with the lowest child and infant mortality rates ever, low rates of hospitalizations, and one of the highest life expectancies in history.

Our Healthy Kids

How do we know today’s kids are healthy?

One easy way is to compare them to kids in the past…

If you have only been listening to the alarmists who talk about the unhealthiest generation all of the time, you likely wouldn’t know that:

  • while 2.6% of kids were thought to be in fair or poor health in 1991, that is down to just 1.8% today (2015)
  • fewer kids today (4.5%) report having had an asthma attack in the previous year than they did in 1997 (5.4%), and that fewer kids have asthma today (8.5%) than in 2003 (8.7%)
  • since 1997, fewer children, whether or not they have insurance, are visiting the emergency room
  • fewer children are requiring overnight hospital stays, down from 5.5% to just 2.1% today (2015)
  • rates of hay fever or respiratory allergy are down since 1997, from 17.5% of kids to 15.6% of kids today (2015)
  • rates of epilepsy have been stable in children for at least 40 years
  • fewer kids have multiple ear infections since 1997, when 7.1% of kids had 3 or more ear infections, to just 5% of kids today (2015)
  • fewer kids are being prescribed antibiotics
  • childhood cancer rates have been rising, but only slightly, and mortality rates have been declining
  • suicide rates are rising, but only from historic lows – they used to be about the same or higher in the early 1990s

Of course, some conditions are on the rise, including ADHD, type 1 diabetes, food allergies, eczema,  obesity, and most autoimmune diseases.

“A few conditions have decreased because of prevention (eg, lead encephalopathy), a few represent relatively new conditions (eg, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection), and some have increased after dramatic improvements in survival for individually low-prevalence childhood conditions that previously had high fatality rates (eg, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart diseases). Most growth, however, reflects dramatic increases in incidence of a few high-prevalence conditions.”

James M. Perrin, MD on The Increase of Childhood Chronic Conditions in the United States

And autism rates have been up, but we mostly know why.

“…the numbers of people born with autism aren’t necessarily increasing dramatically. It’s just that we’re getting better and better at counting them.”

Emily Willingham

Although we don’t know why most other conditions are trending up (it isn’t vaccines), we will hopefully continue to develop new theories and reverse those trends.

It should be reassuring that many of the trends do show that our kids are indeed healthy.

What to Know About Our Healthy Kids

From gun violence and climate change to the threat of emerging infections, out children do face many threats and are certainly under a lot of stress. There is no evidence that this is the unhealthiest generation though. If anything, they are on track to be one of the healthiest.

More on Our Healthy Kids

Can Vaccines Cause POTS?

Have you ever heard of POTS?

“In POTS, the lightheadedness or fainting is also accompanied by a rapid increase in heartbeat of more than 30 beats per minute, or a heart rate that exceeds 120 beats per minute, within 10 minutes of rising.”

NIH Postural Tachycardia Syndrome Information Page

POTS or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was first identified in the early 1990s and can cause many debilitating symptoms, such as dizziness, headaches, and fatigue.

What Causes POTS?

We don’t know what causes POTS.

“The term “POTS” was coined in 1993 by a team of researchers from Mayo Clinic, led by neurologist Dr. Philip Low. However, POTS is not a new illness; it has been known by other names throughout history, such as DaCosta’s Syndrome, Soldier’s Heart, Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome, Neurocirculatory Asthenia, Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, Orthostatic Tachycardia and Postural Tachycardia Syndrome.”

Dysautonomia International on POTS

Well, we know that POTS is caused by a malfunction of the patient’s autonomic nervous system (dysautonomia), but we don’t know always know what causes or triggers that malfunction.

Sometimes we do though, as POTS has been associated with other types of dysautonomia, like Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Mast Cell Disorders.

And genetics may play a role in some people with POTS.

Can Vaccines Cause POTS?

It shouldn’t be surprising that some folks think that vaccines could be associated with POTS.

“Anyone at any age can develop POTS, but the majority of individuals affected (between 75 and 80 percent) are women between the ages of 15 to 50 years of age.”

NIH Postural Tachycardia Syndrome Information Page

That’s right.

As more people were becoming aware of POTS, some of them were getting vaccinated for HPV.

But that correlation certainly doesn’t mean that vaccines cause POTS.

“POTS is a condition that causes lightheadedness or fainting and a rapid increase in heartbeat upon standing. The cause is unknown, but doctors think POTS may be associated with a number of risk factors and syndromes, including: a recent viral illness, physical deconditioning, chronic fatigue syndrome and nervous system problems.”

CDC on Can HPV vaccines cause POTS?

And studies have confirmed that, including:

  • In 2015, the European Medical Association confirmed evidence that HPV vaccines do not cause complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)
  • A review of VAERS reports that “did not detect any unusual or unexpected reporting patterns that would suggest a safety problem” with HPV vaccination, including extra cases of POTS
  • A study in the UK using the MHRA’s Yellow Card passive surveillance scheme found no increase in reports of chronic fatigue syndromes following the introduction of Cervarix
  • A large, nationwide register-based study from Norway found no indication of increased risk of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis following HPV vaccination
  • A large cohort study of over 2 million young girls in France found no risk for autoimmune diseases (including neurological, rheumatological, hematological, endocrine, and gastro-intestinal disorders)
  • A large cohort study of girls in Sweden with pre-existing autoimmune diseases found that HPV vaccination was not associated with increased incidence of new-onset autoimmune disease (49 types of autoimmune diseases)

Contrast those large studies that are evidence against any association between vaccines and POTS with the case reports, anecdotal evidence, and vaccine scare stories that say there is.

“There is currently no conclusive evidence to support a causal relationship between the HPV vaccine and POTS. It is of utmost importance to recognize that although temporal associations may be observed, conclusions of causality cannot be drawn from case reports and case series due to the small sample size and lack of control population inherent to this type of scientific literature. If POTS does develop after receiving the HPV vaccine, it would appear to do so in a small subset of individuals and would be difficult to distinguish from the normal prevalence and incidence of the disorder.”

Butts et al on Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A Review of Current Literature

What about other vaccines? Could they cause POTS?

Folks should remember that a case report is basically a gloried anecdote and is not the kind of evidence you should use to make decisions about vaccinating and protecting your kids.
Folks should remember that a case report is basically a gloried anecdote and is not the kind of evidence you should use to make decisions about vaccinating and protecting your kids.

While the focus has been on the HPV vaccines, an issue with other vaccines causing POTS would have been picked up with our current vaccine safety systems.

But why has the focus been on the HPV vaccines?

It is an easy association to notice, after all POTS begins to occur right around when the HPV vaccines are given (teen years) and the HPV vaccines are given in many different countries. Most other vaccines that we give to teens in the United States, including Tdap and the meningococcal vaccines, aren’t as widely used in other countries.

But remember, POTS isn’t a new diagnosis. That anti-vaccine groups are latching onto it to scare parents away from vaccinating and protecting their kids is.

What to Know About Vaccines and POTS

There is no evidence that vaccines, especially the HPV vaccines, cause POTS.

More on Vaccines and POTS

Are Vaccines Evaluated for Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity or Impairment of Fertility?

Spend much time on anti-vaccine websites or forums and you will soon be warned that vaccines are not evaluated for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity or impairment of fertility.

Actually, you can often read that simply by reading a vaccine’s package insert.

Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity and Impairment of Fertility

What are these term exactly?

  • mutagenicity – being known or suspected of causing mutations in our DNA, which can lead to cancer
  • carcinogenicity – being known or suspected of being able to cause cancer
  • impairment of fertility

And why are they listed in Section 13 of a vaccine’s package insert?

The Section 13 Vaccine Conspiracy?

More importantly, why do some folks talk about Section 13.1 of a vaccine’s package insert like it is Area 51 or Agenda 21?

“13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility. This subsection must state whether long term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential and, if so, the species and results. If results from reproduction studies or other data in animals raise concern about mutagenesis or impairment of fertility in either males or females, this must be described. Any precautionary statement on these topics must include practical, relevant advice to the prescriber on the significance of these animal findings. Human data suggesting that the drug may be carcinogenic or mutagenic, or suggesting that it impairs fertility, as described in the “Warnings and Precautions” section, must not be included in this subsection of the labeling.”

CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

So no material for a vaccine conspiracy?

Just information on studies in animals?

“The goals of the nonclinical safety evaluation generally include a characterization of toxic effects with respect to target organs, dose dependence, relationship to exposure, and, when appropriate, potential reversibility. This information is used to estimate an initial safe starting dose and dose range for the human trials and to identify parameters for clinical monitoring for potential adverse effects. The nonclinical safety studies, although usually limited at the beginning of clinical development, should be adequate to characterize potential adverse effects that might occur under the conditions of the clinical trial to be supported.”

FDA on Guidance for Industry M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals 

It still sounds important though…

Are Vaccines Evaluated for Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity or Impairment of Fertility?

As important as vaccines are, no one wants them to mutate our children, cause cancer, or keep them from having babies.

Fortunately, they don’t!

“To ensure the safety of new vaccines, preclinical toxicology studies are conducted prior to the initiation of, and concurrently with, clinical studies. There are five different types of preclinical toxicology study in the evaluation of vaccine safety: single and/or repeat dose, reproductive and developmental, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and safety pharmacology. If any adverse effects are observed in the course of these studies, they should be fully evaluated and a final safety decision made accordingly. ”

M.D. Green on the Preclinical Toxicology of Vaccines

And that’s because vaccines are safe and well tested.

Then why do anti-vaccine folks scare parents into thinking that vaccines are missing necessary testing when the package insert states that they are “not evaluated for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity or impairment of fertility?”

Cancer is caused by a host of factors. Vaccines have a role in preventing and potentially treating some types of cancer. Components of vaccines and their associated cell lines that viruses are grown in are safe and have not been shown to induce cancer in the vaccinated host.
“Cancer is caused by a host of factors. Vaccines have a role in preventing and potentially treating some types of cancer. Components of vaccines and their associated cell lines that viruses are grown in are safe and have not been shown to induce cancer in the vaccinated host.”

Probably because it sounds scarier than saying that vaccines have a low risk of inducing tumors and that there are very specific guidelines and rules for when a manufacturer needs to perform fertility studies.

That means that if  a package insert says that it has “not been evaluated,” it is simply because it was not necessary or appropriate. It is not because they just didn’t want to do it and left those tests out.

That doesn’t sound as scary though.

All necessary pre-clinical or nonclinical testing is done on vaccines and their components. You just don’t see long term testing that would be listed in the package insert unless the initial tests found a problem.

Also remember that vaccines are monitored through several passive and active safety systems that would detect issues with mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and impairment of fertility.

And several vaccines actually prevent cancer!

What to Know About Vaccines and Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity and Impairment of Fertility

Vaccines are appropriately evaluated for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and impairment of fertility, when necessary, as a part of pre-clinical or nonclinical studies that occur even before the first phase one studies on people.

More About Vaccines and Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity and Impairment of Fertility

 

What Are the Benefits of Vaccines?

Vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary.

They are neither 100% safe nor 100% effective.

That doesn’t make them any less necessary though.

It’s easy to see why when you look at all of the benefits that vaccines have given us.

Perceptions of Risks vs Benefits of Vaccines

One of the reasons that some parents become vaccine-hesitant is that they forget about the many benefits of vaccine.

That’s not surprising, as the better vaccines work, the less obvious their benefits are to everyone. After all, few people remember what it was like in the pre-vaccine era.

A measles epidemic hit New York City in 1951, as this front page NYTimes article reports.
A measles epidemic hit New York City in 1951, as this New York Times article reports.

That makes it easy to for some people to downplay the benefits of vaccines.

Unfortunately, at the same time, some parents might over-estimate the risks of vaccines. And that makes it even easier for them to justify a decision to skip or delay their child’s vaccines.

What Are the Benefits of Vaccines?

For most of us, the greatest benefit of any vaccine is that it keeps us from worrying that our kids will get a vaccine-preventable disease. If they do get sick, we don’t worry that every fever is measles or that every cough is pertussis either.

“It is also much cheaper to prevent a disease than to treat it. In a 2005 study on the economic impact of routine childhood immunization in the United States, researchers estimated that for every dollar spent, the vaccination program saved more than $5 in direct costs and approximately $11 in additional costs to society.”

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Among the other benefits of available vaccines are that:

The benefits of vaccines become more obvious when folks stop vaccinating.

immunization-program-stages
As more people are vaccinated and diseases disappear, they forget how bad those diseases are, skip or delay getting their vaccines, and trigger outbreaks. Photo by WHO

What happens?

Invariably, we start to see outbreaks.

Then they quickly remember why vaccines are necessary, vaccines rates go up, and the outbreaks get under control.

And everyone understands that all of great benefits of vaccines far outweigh any of their small risks. They also begin to hopefully understand that not everyone can attempt to hide in the herd or follow an alternative immunization schedule. That too can simply lead to more outbreaks, as the number of unvaccinated folks increases, at least temporarily.

What to Know About the Benefits of Vaccines

The great benefits of vaccines, which include that they have saved millions of lives, far outweigh any small risks.

More About the Benefits of Vaccines

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