After Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine in 1798, it would take almost a century to start seeing other vaccines.
There was the rabies vaccine (Louis Pasteur) in 1885 and then vaccines for cholera and typhoid in 1896.
Although not part of the routine immunization schedule, two typhoid vaccines are available and used for those who are traveling out of the United States, including:
- Vivotif – an oral Typhoid, live, attentuated typhoid vaccine that can only be given to children who are at least six years old
- Typhim Vi – an inactivated typhoid shot that can be given to children as young as two years
Unlike most other vaccine-preventable diseases, it has not been vaccines, but rather improved hygiene, sanitation, and food safety that helped control typhoid fever in the United States. That makes sense though, as the Salmonella Typhi bacteria that causes typhoid fever is typically spread by ingesting food and water that is contaminated with feces from a S. Typhi carrier.
Unfortunately, typhoid fever is still common in the developing world.
And the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi continues to push interest in new and better typhoid fever vaccines.
For more information:
- Mary Mallon (1869-1938) and the history of typhoid fever
- Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action
- Typhoid Fever in the United States
- CDC – Typhoid Fever
- Typhoid ACIP Vaccine Recommendations
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