Tag: vaccines work

What Are the Benefits of the Flu Shot?

So that flu shot you got isn’t going to be 100% effective this year…

That doesn’t mean that you didn’t make a great decision getting your family vaccinated and protected! Or that you shouldn’t still take the time to go out and get a flu shot if you haven’t yet.

The flu vaccine works, even if it isn’t perfect.

Benefits of the Flu Shot

The benefits of the flu shot go far beyond just avoiding the flu.
The benefits of the flu shot go far beyond simply helping you avoid the flu. Most flu related deaths in children are in those who are unvaccinated.

What good is the flu shot if it doesn’t completely eliminate your risk of catching the flu?

How about the simple fact that even if doesn’t completely eliminate that risk 100%, a flu shot does decrease your risk of getting sick with the flu?

But it doesn’t end there.

Other benefits of a yearly flu shot include that it can:

  • reduce the risk of flu-associated death in children with underlying high-risk medical conditions by just over half (51%)
  • reduce the risk of flu-associated death in healthy children by just over two thirds (65%) – this is important, because despite what most people believe, many of the kids who die with the flu each year don’t have any underlying health problems
  • reduce how sick you get, even if you do get the flu, reducing “deaths, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, ICU length of stay, and overall duration of hospitalization among hospitalized flu patients.”
  • reduce the risk of the babies getting hospitalized in their first 6 months when pregnant moms got a flu shot
  • reduce asthma attacks leading to emergency visits and/or hospitalizations in people with asthma

Getting vaccinated can also reduce the risk that you get sick with the flu and get someone else sick.

Considering all of these benefits, it is hard to imagine why anyone wouldn’t get a flu shot, even in year’s when it might just be 60% or even 40% effective.

I mean, it isn’t like the flu shot is actually going to give you the flu or anything…

Have you gotten your flu shot yet this flu season?

What to Know About the Benefits of the Flu Shot

In addition to helping you avoid getting sick with the flu, getting a yearly flu shot has many other indirect benefits, so that even if you get the flu, it can help you avoid getting really sick and ending up in the hospital, ICU, or getting so sick that you don’t survive.

More on the Benefits of the Flu Shot

Updated February 17, 2018

Diphtheria in Canada

A lot of people were surprised by the news of a case of diphtheria in Canada this past week.

Some folks were quick to blame the anti-vaccine movement, assuming it was in an unvaccinated child.

News soon came that the child was vaccinated!

“I’ve always been on top of that, I’m a firm believer in immunizations.”

Mother of 10-year-old with diphtheria

What happened next?

Anti-vaccine folks began using the fact that he was vaccinated, but still developed diphtheria, as some kind of proof that vaccines don’t work.

The Case of Diphtheria in Canada

They are wrong.

The diphtheria vaccines have worked very well to control and eliminate diphtheria from Canada, just like it has in the United States.

Diphtheria has become rare since the pre-vaccine era.
Diphtheria has become rare since the pre-vaccine era.

So how did a vaccinated child in Canada get diphtheria?

It’s simple.

He has cutaneous diphtheria, not respiratory diphtheria.

What’s the difference?

“Extensive membrane production and organ damage are caused by local and systemic actions of a potent exotoxin produced by toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae. A cutaneous form of diphtheria commonly occurs in warmer climates or tropical countries.”

Vaccines Seventh Edition

Cutaneous diphtheria occurs on your skin. It is usually caused by non-toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

On the other hand, respiratory diphtheria is usually caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Diphtheria strikes unprotected children.The diphtheria vaccine (the ‘D’ in DTaP and Tdap), a toxoid vaccine, covers toxigenic strains. More specifically, it covers the toxin that is produced by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is this toxin that produces the pseudomembrane that is characteristic of diphtheria.

It was the formation of this pseudomembrane in a child’s airway that gave diphtheria the nickname of the “strangling angel.”

So why the fuss over this case in Canada? They likely don’t yet know if it is a toxigenic strain. If it is, then it could be a source of respiratory diphtheria.

But remember, even if these kids developed an infection with the toxigenic strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, those that are fully vaccinated likely wouldn’t develop respiratory diphtheria. Again, it is the toxin that the bacteria produces that cause the symptoms of diphtheria. The vaccine protects against that toxin.

For example, when an intentionally unvaccinated 6-year-old in Spain was hospitalized with severe diphtheria symptoms a few years ago, although many of his friends also got infected, non of them actually developed symptoms because they were all vaccinated.

Diphtheria Is Still Around

Diphtheria is DeadlyTragically though, especially since diphtheria is still endemic in many countries, we are starting to see occasional lethal cases of diphtheria in many more countries where it was previously under control:

  • at least 7 diphtheria deaths in Venezuela this past year
  • a family that became infected in South Africa in which at least one child died (August 2017)
  • an unvaccinated 3-year-old who died in Belgium (2016)
  • a 22-year-old unvaccinated women who died in Australia (2011)

It is even more tragic that diphtheria is not under control in so many more countries.

In 2016, the WHO reported that there were just over 7,000 cases of diphtheria worldwide. While that is down from the 30,000 cases and 3,000 deaths in 2000, thanks to improved vaccination rates, there is still work to be done.

And as this recent case in Canada shows, diphtheria is still around in many more places than we would like to imagine.

Get educated. Vaccines are necessary.

What to Know About Diphtheria in Canada

The case of cutaneous diphtheria in Canada is a good reminder that vaccines are still necessary.

More on Diphtheria in Canada

Efficacy vs Effectiveness of Vaccines

According to the CDC:

Vaccine efficacy and vaccine effectiveness measure the proportionate reduction in cases among vaccinated persons.

But what’s the difference between vaccine efficacy and effectiveness?

Vaccine efficacy is used when a study is carried out under ideal conditions, for example, during a clinical trial.

Vaccine effectiveness is used when a study is carried out under typical field (that is, less than perfectly controlled) conditions.

Postlicensure studies can often help figure out vaccine effectiveness. For example, the study “Varicella Vaccine Effectiveness in the US Vaccination Program: A Review,” that appeared in The Journal of Infectious Diseases in 2008 “reviewed the results of postlicensure studies of varicella vaccine effectiveness and compared these results with those of prelicensure efficacy trials.”

That study of the chicken pox vaccine found that “the estimates of effectiveness are lower than the prelicensure efficacy,” although several studies found the vaccine “100% effective in preventing combined moderate and severe varicella.”

For More Information On Efficacy vs Effectiveness of Vaccines: