Tag: table injury

Understanding the Vaccine Injury Table

The Vaccine Injury Table was created by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986.

“The Table makes it easier for some people to get compensation. The Table lists and explains injuries/conditions that are presumed to be caused by vaccines. It also lists time periods in which the first symptom of these injuries/conditions must occur after receiving the vaccine. If the first symptom of these injuries/conditions occurs within the listed time periods, it is presumed that the vaccine was the cause of the injury or condition unless another cause is found.”

What You Need to Know about the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

A table injury is an illness, disability, injury or condition covered by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

“For example, if you received the tetanus vaccine and had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) within 4 hours after receiving the vaccine, then it is presumed that the tetanus vaccine caused the injury if no other cause is found.”

What You Need to Know about the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

To quality as a table injury, the illness, disability, injury or condition has to occur within a specific “time period for first symptom or manifestation of onset or of significant aggravation after vaccine administration.”

Understanding the Vaccine Injury Table

So if there is a Vaccine Injury Table, then that proves that vaccine injuries are real, right?

The Vaccine Injury Table is easier to understand if you actually look at the table.
The Vaccine Injury Table is easier to understand if you actually look at the table.

Wait, does anyone dispute that vaccine injuries are real?

No one says that vaccines are 100% safe, so yes, of course, it is known that they have risks and cause adverse effects. While most of these adverse effects are usually mild, they can rarely be severe or even life threatening.

The idea the vaccine injuries are common is what is misunderstood and misrepresented by anti-vaccine folks.

It's no joke, studies have shown fewer side effects after the second dose of MMR!
It’s no joke, studies have shown fewer side effects after the second dose of MMR!

Consider the above post by Bob Sears

Yes chronic arthritis after a rubella containing vaccine is a table injury, but it is very rare. Arthritis after the rubella vaccine is typically mild and temporary, lasting just a few days.

While rubella containing vaccines can cause arthritis, they do not cause lifelong rheumatoid arthritis. So even if you were to be one of the very rare people who developed chronic arthritis after a rubella containing vaccine, a table injury, it would still not be the same thing as rheumatoid arthritis.

“The association between rubella vaccination and chronic arthritis is less clear. Most recently published research, has shown no increased risk of chronic arthropathies among women receiving RA27/3 rubella vaccine and do not support the conclusion of the IOM (Slater et al., 1995; Frenkel et al., 1996; Ray et al., 1997). These studies have included a large retrospective cohort analysis which showed no evidence of any increased risk of new onset chronic arthropathies and a double-blind historical cohort study. One randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind study of rubella vaccination in sero-negative women demonstrated that the frequency of chronic (recurrent) arthralgia or arthritis was marginally increased (1.58 [1.01-2.45], p = 0.042) (Tingle et al., 1997). In 2011, the United States Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviewed available research and concluded that the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between MMR vaccine and chronic arthralgia in women.”

Information Sheet Observed Rate of Vaccine Reactions Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccines

And it wouldn’t even be clear if your chronic arthritis was caused by the vaccine!

“The Table lists and explains injuries and/or conditions that are presumed to be caused by vaccines unless another cause is proven.”

What You Need to Know about the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

To be added to the Vaccine Injury Table, there only has to be scientific evidence that a condition could be caused by a vaccine.

“Where there is credible scientific and medical evidence both to support and to reject a proposed change (addition or deletion) to the Table, the change should, whenever possible, be made to the benefit of petitioners.”

Guiding Principles for Recommending Changes to the Vaccine Injury Table

That makes sense, as the NVICP is a “is a no-fault alternative to the traditional legal system for resolving vaccine injury petitions” for VICP-covered vaccines.

Vaccines Covered by the Vaccine Injury Table

Most routinely used vaccines are covered by the Vaccine Injury Table, including vaccines that protect against:

  • diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis – DTaP, Tdap, Td
  • measles, mumps, and rubella – MMR, ProQuad
  • chickenpox – Varivax, ProQuad
  • polio – IPV, OPV
  • hepatitis B
  • hepatitis A
  • Hib
  • rotavirus
  • pneumococcal disease – Prevnar
  • influenza – seasonal flu vaccines
  • meningococcal disease – MCV4, MenB
  • human papillomavirus – HPV4, HPV9

In fact, “any new vaccine recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for routine administration to children, after publication by the Secretary of a notice of coverage” is automatically included, at least for Shoulder Injury Related to Vaccine Administration and vasovagal syncope.

New vaccines are also covered if they are already “under a category of vaccines covered by the VICP.”

Immunizations given to pregnant women are also covered.

A few others, including vaccines that protect against pandemic flu, smallpox, and anthrax are covered by the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program (CICP).

Vaccines Not Covered by the Vaccine Injury Table

What about vaccines that aren’t routine?

Other vaccines that are used in special situations, including vaccines that protect against rabies, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, cholera, and typhoid aren’t listed in the Vaccine Injury Table and aren’t covered by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

Have you seen any TV ads for lawsuits against the shingles vaccine, which isn't in the vaccine injury table.
Have you seen any TV ads for lawsuits against the first shingles vaccine?

Shingles vaccines and the older pneumococcal vaccine, Pneumovax, aren’t covered either.

And since they are not covered by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, there are no restrictions on lawsuits against the manufacturers of these vaccines or the health providers who administer them.

So much for the idea that you can’t sue a vaccine manufacturer or that vaccine manufacturers have no liability for vaccines…

Why weren’t these vaccines covered?

Remember, the NVICP and Vaccine Injury Table were created by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The vaccines that aren’t covered are not on the routine childhood immunization schedule.

“There are no age restrictions on who may receive compensation in the VICP. Petitions may be filed on behalf of infants, children and adolescents, or by adults receiving VICP-covered vaccines.”

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Frequently Asked Questions

Still, since many of the covered vaccines can be given to adults, they are included, even if some of the vaccines adults routinely get aren’t covered.

Will they ever be covered?

“They found a low liability burden for these vaccines, that serious adverse events were rare, and that no consensus existed among stakeholders. After considering the staff report, NVAC chose, in 1996, not to advise the Department of Health and Human Services to include adult vaccines in VICP.”

Loyd-Puryear et al on Should the vaccine injury compensation program be expanded to cover adults?

Adding more adult vaccines to the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) is something that has been looked at in the past, but it wasn’t thought to be necessary.

What to Know About the Vaccine Injury Table

The Vaccine Injury Table is a list of conditions set up to make it easier for people to get compensated from the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

More on Understanding the Vaccine Injury Table

Can Vaccines Cause Arthritis?

Many people think that vaccines can cause arthritis.

Vaccines and Arthritis

That’s not surprising, as there are many case reports associating vaccines and arthritis.

Arthritis is even listed as an adverse reaction in the package insert for the MMR vaccine.

While rubella vaccines can cause arthritis, so can a rubella infection.
While rubella vaccines can cause arthritis, so can a rubella infection.

And chronic arthritis is also listed as a table injury for vaccines containing the rubella virus.

Can Vaccines Cause Arthritis?

So that means that vaccines cause arthritis, right?

Actually, no, it doesn’t. At least not the type of arthritis that most people associate with the term arthritis.

Wait, what does that mean?

Vaccines do not cause juvenile arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, for example.

“Rubella-containing vaccines (e.g. MMR) can cause mild, acute, transient arthralgia or arthritis, rarely in children but very commonly in certain adult women (between 10-25% of adult female vaccinees without preexisting rubella immunity), usually beginning 1-3 weeks after vaccination and then persisting up to 3 weeks. Other vaccines currently routinely recommended to the general population in the U.S. have not been shown to cause chronic arthralgia or arthritis.”

Do Vaccines Cause Arthralgia or Arthritis?

While rubella-containing vaccines can cause arthritis, it is a mild type of arthritis that is usually temporary, lasting about two days.

“Postpubertal females should be informed of the frequent occurrence of generally self-limited arthralgia and/or arthritis beginning 2 to 4 weeks after vaccination.”

MMR-II Package Insert

It is also rare in children.

And it also occurs after a natural rubella infection. In fact, up to 70% of adult women with rubella develop arthralgia or arthritis.

Of course, arthritis isn’t the rubella complication that we worry about…

During the rubella epidemic in the United States just before the rubella vaccine was developed, there were 2,000 cases of encephalitis, 11,250 therapeutic or spontaneous abortions, 2,100 neonatal deaths, and 20,000 babies born with congenital rubella syndrome.

Vaccines for Arthritis

Except for temporary arthritis after the rubella vaccine, not only do vaccines not cause arthritis, it is recommended that people with chronic arthritis get vaccinated.

“Keeping up with your vaccinations is always a smart move, but getting immunized is especially important when you have an autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and the medicines you take to treat it can increase your risk for infections.”

RA & Vaccinations

And one day, we might even have therapeutic vaccines for arthritis!

Rheumavax completed a phase I clinical trial in Australia a few years ago. That led to the development of a new drug, DEN-181, that is now in phase 1 trials.

What to Know About Vaccines Causing Arthritis

Rubella containing vaccines can cause mild, temporary arthritis, but mostly in postpubertal females and less commonly than after a natural rubella infection.

More on Vaccines and Arthritis

Do Vaccines Cause PANDAS?

PANDAS, first described in 1998, is an acronym for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections.

Kids with PANDAS can have tics and/or OCD that come on suddenly or get worse after they get a strep infection. Specifically, a group A streptococcal infection, like strep throat.

These kids might also be moody and irritable, develop problems at school, have trouble sleeping, and have anxiety, including separation anxiety.

What Causes PANDAS?

Like other post-strep complications, PANDAS is thought to be an auto-immune disorder that occurs when a child’s immune system targets the strep bacteria, but also cross-reacts with molecules that strep uses to hide in our body.

“However, the molecules on the strep bacteria are eventually recognized as foreign to the body and the child’s immune system reacts to them by producing antibodies. Because of the molecular mimicry by the bacteria, the immune system reacts not only to the strep molecules, but also to the human host molecules that were mimicked; antibodies system “attack” the mimicked molecules in the child’s own tissues.”

PANDAS—Questions and Answers

If antibodies to mimicked molecules target a child’s brain tissue, then you can get the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PANDAS, including tics and OCD.

Does it sound a little unbelievable?

Do you know what causes rheumatic fever, besides an untreated group A streptococcal infection? It is an auto-immune disorder that occurs when the antibodies that are produced after a strep infection attack your joints and heart, including the valves of your heart.

Similarly, if the antibodies attack your kidney, you can develop post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

Do Vaccines Cause PANDAS?

PANDAS is caused by a strep infection.

Vaccines do not cause strep infections and vaccines do not cause PANDAS.

The Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines recently voted against adding PANDAS as a vaccine table injury.
The Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines recently voted against adding PANDAS as a vaccine table injury.

Responding to a petition to add PANDAS and similar conditions as a vaccine table injury, the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines voted 5 to 1 against, stating that:

  • No published study that examines anti‐neuronal antibodies including anti‐dopamine receptor 1 (DR1), anti‐dopamine receptor 2 (DR2), anti‐tubulin, anti‐lysoganglioside – GM1 or antibody‐mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in children suspected of PANS and/or PITAND following pertussis infection or following pertussis immunization was found.
  • No published case report of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines or pneumococcal infections and Hib vaccines or Hib infections causing or enabling the development of acute neuropsychiatric symptoms via a mechanism of blood‐brain barrier disruption with GAS antibody‐mediated CNS cross‐reaction in a susceptible child were found.
  • No published case report of PANS, PITAND and/or PANDAS following pertussis vaccination or during or following pertussis infection were found.
  • No published case report of PANS, PITAND and/or PANDAS following either pneumococcal conjugate or Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination or pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b infection were found.

There is no evidence that vaccines cause PANDAS.

“Children with PANS and PANDAS should receive standard childhood vaccines, following recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2016a). The patient and all family members should receive annual influenza immunization as described under Influenza (described earlier).”

Clinical Management of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Part III—Treatment and Prevention of Infections

What about PANS and PITANDS?

These are similar, although much more controversial than PANDAS.

What’s the difference?

With PANDAS, the trigger is a strep infection. What about if you have symptoms of PANDAS, but no evidence of a strep infection?

Then some folks stick with the diagnosis and simply label you as having PANS or PITANDS, blaming some other infection, even though there is little evidence that these are a real thing.

More on PANDAS

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Payouts Prove that Vaccines are Dangerous

Have you heard this argument?

Misinformation about the NVICP, like from this Focus for Health article, likely helps confuse and scare many parents.
Misinformation about the NVICP, like from this Focus for Health article, likely helps confuse and scare many parents.

Apparently, some folks think that because we have a National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program that compensates those who have serious problems after a vaccine, even deaths, then it must mean that vaccines are dangerous.

Do the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Payouts Prove that Vaccines are Dangerous?

To most other people, that argument doesn’t hold water.

Why?

Because we know that:

  • the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is a no-fault alternative to the traditional legal system for resolving vaccine injury petitions
  • of over 3.1 billion doses of vaccines that were distributed in the United States between 2006 and 2016, there were 3,749 compensated claims through the NVICP
  • almost 80% of all compensated awards by the NVICP come as a “result of a negotiated settlement between the parties in which HHS has not concluded, based upon review of the evidence, that the alleged vaccine(s) caused the alleged injury.”
  • the NVICP settlements are funded by an excise tax on vaccines
  • the NVICP cases are published by the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, so all information is disclosed to the public and no safety concerns are hidden

So what does the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) really prove?

It proves that true vaccine injuries are very rare – about 1 in a million rare.

It proves that while vaccines are not 100% safe, they are very safe.

Certainly safer than the complications of a vaccine-preventable disease.

And it proves that anti-vaccine arguments are very easy to refute

More on the NVICP and Vaccine Safety