In addition to getting routine vaccines, there are some special situations in which kids need extra vaccines or extra dosages of vaccines.
Vaccines for High Risk Conditions
Other special situations include children with high risk conditions, such as:
- complement component deficiencies – Menveo or Menactra, MenB
- chronic heart disease – PPSV23
- chronic lung disease (not including mild asthma) – PPSV23
- diabetes mellitus – PPSV23
- CSF leaks – PPSV23
- cochlear implants – PPSV23
- chronic liver disease – PPSV23
- cigarette smoking – PPSV23
- sickle cell disease – PPSV23
- congenital or acquired asplenia – Menveo or Menactra, PPSV23, MenB
- congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies – PPSV23
- HIV infection – PPSV23
- chronic renal failure – PPSV23
- nephrotic syndrome – PPSV23
- leukemia – PPSV23
- lymphoma – PPSV23
- hodgkin disease – PPSV23
- iatrogenic immunosuppression – PPSV23
- solid organ transplant – PPSV23
- multiple myeloma – PPSV23
In general, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23 or Pneumovax 23, should be given when a high risk child is at least 2 years old and at least 4 weeks after their last dose of Prevnar 13. Some will need an additional booster dose of Pneumovax 23 after five years.
Remember, most children routinely get 4 doses of Prevnar 13 when they are 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months old.
And while most kids just get one dose of PPSV23, others, especially those with any type of immunosuppression, get a repeat dose every five years.
Are there ever situations when kids need to get revaccinated?
While it might be hard to believe, there are more than a few reasons that kids get revaccinated.
The most obvious is when kids lose their vaccine records, although checking vaccine titers might help avoid repeating some or all of your child’s vaccines.
Children who have had a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) should routinely get revaccinated:
- starting with inactivated vaccines six months after the transplant, including a 3-dose regiment of Prevnar 13, followed by PPSV23, a 3-dose regiment of Hib, and a yearly flu shot and other inactivated vaccines
- continuing with a dose of MMR 24 months after the transplant if they are immunocompetent and possibly the chicken pox vaccine
Children who are adopted in a foreign country also often need to repeat all or most of their vaccines. Again, titers can often be done to avoid repeating doses.
Other Special Situations
Other special situations in which your child might need to get vaccinated off the standard immunization schedule might include:
- missing one or more vaccines and needing to catch-up
- getting exposed to rabies (cats, dogs, raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, and coyotes)
- having a wound that is not considered clean and minor (usually “wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, soil, and saliva; puncture wounds; avulsions; and wounds resulting from missiles, crushing, burns, and frostbite”) if it has been more than five years since their last dose of tetanus vaccine (or a clean and minor wound and it has been more than 10 years)
- getting exposed to chicken pox (or shingles) or measles and not being fully vaccinated (two doses of the chicken pox and two doses of the MMR vaccines) or naturally immune, as a vaccine within 72 hours may decrease their risk of getting sick
Do your kids have a medical condition that might put them at high risk for a vaccine-preventable disease?
Do they need a vaccine that other kids don’t routinely get?
For More Information on Vaccines in Special Situations
- Pneumococcal ACIP Vaccine Recommendations
- ACIP – Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Children Aged 6–18 Years with Immunocompromising Conditions: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
- ACIP – Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Children—Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine
- ACIP – Use of MenACWY-CRM Vaccine in Children Aged 2 Through 23 Months at Increased Risk for Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013
- ACIP – Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Persons Aged ≥10 Years at Increased Risk for Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015
- CDC – Adoption and Vaccines
- Summary Guide to Tetanus Prophylaxis in Routine Wound Management
- CDC – Post-exposure Varicella Vaccination